未來完成進行式例句用法

未來完成進行式例句用法

未來完成進行式是英文12時態中的最後一個時態,讀者可能會問未來完成進行式會用在怎麼樣的情境下呢? 未來完成進行式主要用於表達「截至未來某個時間點」已經持續一段時間動作,基本上跟現在完成進行式與過去完成進行式的概念相似,只是截止的時間點推移到未來,本文首先以圖表解釋未來完成進行式例句用法,並說明未來完成進行式及未來完成式使用情境的差別,接著用練習題幫讀者複習三個完成進行式,最後以一個完整的情境總結「未來簡單式、未來進行式、未來完成式與未來完成進行式」,讓讀者一次複習並搞懂未來時間中的四個時態。

未來完成進行式例句用法

未來完成進行式的公式是will have been +V-ing,主要用於表達「截至未來某個時間點」某動作「持續進行多久了」,這個動作開始的時間點可能是未來或過去都有可能,我們來看幾個例句:

例一:

I will start working at nine AM. My boss will walk into the office at ten AM. At ten AM, I will be working. I will have been working for an hour by the time my boss walks into the office.

未來完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例1

我將在九點開始工作,我老闆將在十點時走進辦公室,這兩句話都是用未來簡單式描述,在十點時我將正在工作,用未來進行式表達未來的某個時間點正在做的活動,在我老闆走進辦公室之前我將會已經持續工作一個小時了,用未來完成進行式表達主要子句中截至未來時間的十點鐘將會已經持續工作一小時,未來的時間副詞子句by the time my boss walks into the office 則用現在簡單式表達。

例二:

I will begin to study English at 5 PM. I will stop studying at 7 PM. Before I stop, I will have been studying English for two hours.

未來完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例2

我將在下午五點開始讀英文,七點鐘的時候停止,在我停止之前我將會已經持續讀英文兩小時了,用未來完成進行式表達主要子句中截至未來七點鐘將會已經持續讀英文讀兩小時了,時間副詞子句Before I stop 則用現在簡單式表達。

例三:

I began reading a novel at 2 PM. It’s 3 PM right now. I am still reading the novel. My Mom will get home at 5 PM. At that time, I will be reading the novel. By the time my mom gets home, I will have been reading the novel for three hours.

未來完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例3

I began reading a novel at 2 PM.
我在下午兩點時開始讀小說
->注意這句話是發生於過去的時間用過去簡單式

It’s 3 PM right now.
現在是下午三點鐘
->用現在簡單式表達現在的事實

I am still reading the novel. 我現在在讀小說
->用現在進行式表達我現在正在做什麼

My Mom will get home at 5 PM.
我媽媽將在五點時到家
->用未來簡單式表達發生於未來某時間點的活動

At that time, I will be reading the novel.
屆時我仍在讀小說
-> 用未來進行式表達未來的某個時間點正在做的活動

By the time my mom gets home, I will have been reading the novel for three hours.
在我媽媽到家時我將會已經讀小說讀了三個小時了
-> 用未來完成進行式表達主要子句中截至未來的五點鐘將會已經持續讀小說三小時,未來的時間副詞子句by the time my mom gets home 則用現在簡單式表達

在這邊大家可以注意到這個活動的起始時間點是從「過去」開始一直持續到未來的某個時間點,用未來完成進行式表達的句子不一定是所有時間都發生在未來,也可能是從過去開始的喔!

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別和現在完成式與現在完成進行式的概念相似,只是時間點全部移到「未來」,接下來我將舉例說明未來完成進行式和未來完成式偏好的使用情境。

1. 可以使用未來完成進行式和未來完成式的表達狀況:
如果要表達經常性習慣性的動作截至到未來某個時間點持續多久了,兩個時態都可以,文意上沒有差別(常見的動作有live, work, teach 等等)

I started teaching in 2011. It’s 2021 now.
I have been teaching English for ten years.
By next year, I will have been teaching English for eleven years.

By next year, I will have taught English for eleven years.

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別情境圖範例4

截至到明年我將會已經持續教書11年了,這句話可以用未來完成進行式或未來完成式表達文意是一樣的。

2. 只能用未來完成式表達的狀況:
如果今天用的動詞是非動作動詞(be, know, love等等)、表達到未來某時間點之前重複從事某活動的次數、表達截至到未來已經完成的動作(此動作沒有在持續進行)只會使用未來完成式,例如:

例一:

I haven’t been to Japan, but I hope that before I start my new job, I will have been there.

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別情境圖範例5

我至今還沒有去過日本,但我希望在我開始新工作前我將會已經去過日本了。這邊表達的是一個狀態,所以會用未來完成式而非為來完成進行式。

例二:

I have read this novel twice. If I read this novel once more, I will have read it three times.

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別情境圖範例6

我已經讀了這本小說兩次,如果我再讀一次這本小說,我將會已經讀它三次了。在這個例句中,我在「現在」這個時間點之前已經把這本小說讀了兩次了I have read this novel twice. 如果我再讀一次小說的話(這件事是我未來可能會去做的事情),If子句用現在簡單式表達,我將會已經讀這本小說三次了,這個是個「已經完成」的動作用未來完成式表達

相對於前述例句中 By the time my mom gets home, I will have been reading the novel for three hours. 在我媽媽到家時我將會已經讀小說讀了三個小時了,這個情境中用「未來完成進行式」表達比較貼切,因為讀小說是一個「暫時性」的動作,並且一直「持續進行」到媽媽回來時共「持續了三小時﹞,表達「暫時性的、持續進行多久了」的動作用未來完成進行式較適當。

例三:

We are stuck in a traffic jam. We are going to be late. By the time we get to the airport, the airplane will have taken off.

未來完成進行式與未來完成式的差別情境圖範例7

我們現在塞車中,用現在簡單式表達現在的狀況,我們將會遲到,用未來簡單式預測未來會發生的事情,在我們抵達機場之前,飛機將會已經起飛。我們將在未來某個時間點抵達機場,飛機在那之前將會已經起飛,兩件事情都發生在未來,先發生的事情(飛機已經起飛)就會用未來完成式表達,而後發生的事情(我們將抵達機場)因為是一個時間副詞子句,需用現在簡單式來表達未來的文意。這邊不能用未來完成進行式表達,因為情境是表達截至到未來已經完成的動作(此動作沒有在持續進行)故使用未來完成式。

若讀者想對未來完成式有進一步了解可點讀"未來完成式例句用法解析"這篇文章。

練習題:請依照情境圈選較適當的時態(未來完成進行式或未來完成式)

1.George is sweeping and mopping the floor right now. By the time his mother comes home, he (will have finished cleaning his room/ will have been cleaning his room).

2. This is a boring job. I am getting tired of folding these letters and putting them in envelopes. Do we have to continue doing this? Do you realize by the time we get off work, we (will have been doing this for 6 hours/ will do this for 6 hours)?

3. A: What do you think you (will have learned/ will have been learning) by the end of the term?
B: I think I (will have learned/ will have been learning) how to write a research paper.

4. I don’t know how Cathy does it! She can concentrate on her writing for a long time. It’s 3 PM now and She has been writing the article for two hours. By 5 PM, she (will have been writing/will be writing) for four hours. I don’t think I can concentrate on my work for more than twenty minutes!

5. By the end of the twenty-first century, scientists (will have discovered/ will have been discovering) a new way to travel.

答案:

1. will have finished cleaning
2. will have been doing this for 6 hours
3. will have learned, will have learned
4. will have been writing
5. will have discovered

三個完成進行式一次搞懂

三個完成進行式一次搞懂

進行式的型態用於表達「持續進行中,暫時的」活動,完成進行式的核心概念在於某活動持續進行到另一個時間點或另一個活動之前,差別只在於這個另一個時間點是「到過去」「到現在」或是「到未來」,如果這活動是從過去某個時間點開始持續「到現在」就使用「現在完成進行式」表達;如果這活動是從過去某個時間點開始持續「到過去另一個時間點」,就使用「過去完成進行式」表達,如果這動作是從某個時間點開始一直持續「到未來」,就使用「未來完成進行式」表達。我們來看下列的例子:

This evening I started teaching at 6:30.
Right now it is 8:30 and I am still teaching.
I have been teaching for two hours.
By 7:30, I had been teaching for an hour.
By 9:30, I will have been teaching for three hours.

三個完成進行式一次搞懂情境圖範例

今晚我從六點半開始教書,現在是八點半我仍在教書,截至到現在八點半這個時間點我已經教書教兩小時了,把時間點推移到過去七點半,我從六點半到七點半持續教書教一小時,把時間點推移到未來九點半的時間,我將會已經持續教書教三小時了。

若讀者想對現在完成進行式與過去完成進行式有進一步了解可點讀"現在完成進行式例句與現在完成式之比較"與"過去完成進行式例句用法"這兩篇文章。

練習題: 請填入正確的完成進行式

1. Jan started to do her homework at 7 PM. Right now it’s 8 PM and she is still doing her homework. She _____________(do) her homework for an hour. By 7:30 PM, she _____________(do) her homework for half an hour. By 9 PM, she ____________(do) her homework for two hours.

2. Robert _________(work) on this project since this morning. He is still working on it now.

3. Jack started to learn English when he was 3 years old. He is a junior high school student right now. He ________(learn) English for 10 years. Before he came to elementary school, he ______(learn) English for 3 years. When he goes to college, he _________(learn) English for 15 years.

4. When Professor Mark retires next month, he ______(teach) English for 40 years.

5. Jessica is very tired because she ____________(dance) for an hour. Lucy was very tired because she ___________(run) for two hours.

6. If it snows again tomorrow, it ___________(snow) for three days.

7. I ___________(live) in this house since I was born. By next year, I _________(live) here for thirty years. Before we moved into this house, the Lin Family _________(live) here for two months.

答案:

1. has been doing, had been doing, will have been doing
2. has been working
3. has been learning, had been learning, will have been learning
4. will have been teaching
5. has been dancing, had been running
6. will have been snowing
7. have been living, will have been living, had been living

未來完成進行式,未來簡單式,未來進行式,未來完成式例句比較

My cats will wake up at 8 PM. They will start to chase each other around the room at 9:30 PM. I will get home at 10:00 PM. When I get home, they will be chasing each other around the room. By the time I get home, my cats will have been playing for half an hour. I will feed my cats at 10:30 PM and go to bed at 11:00PM. By the time I go to bed, my cats will have already eaten.

解釋:
My cats will wake up at 8 PM. They will start to chase each other around the room at 9:30 PM. I will get home at 10:00 PM. 我的貓咪們將在晚上八點起床,九點半開始互相追逐玩耍,我將在十點到家,這些都是發生在未來某個時間點的事情所以用未來簡單式表達。

When I get home, they will be chasing each other around the room.
當我到家時,我的貓咪們仍在追逐玩耍,用未來進行式表達未來某個時間點正在進行的動作。

By the time I get home, my cats will have been playing for half an hour.
在我到家之前,我的貓咪們將會已經玩耍半小時了,用未來完成進行式表達截至到我到家這個時間點時,貓咪玩耍這個暫時性的動作持續進行了半小時。

I will feed my cats at 10:30 PM and go to bed at 11:00PM. By the time I go to bed, my cats will have already eaten. 我將會在十點半餵我的貓咪們吃飯,十一點上床睡覺,這兩句話都用未來簡單式表達。在我上床睡覺前,我的貓咪們將會已經吃飽了,用未來完成式表達截至到我上床睡覺這個未來時間點已經完成的動作。

若讀者想對未來簡單式與未來進行式有進一步了解可點讀"未來簡單式未來進行式一次搞定"這篇文章

練習題: 複習未來式的四個時態,請選出正確的動詞型態

When Jeffery gets up tomorrow morning, his dog, Bobo, (will have waited for/ will be waiting for) him to go to the park. Jeffery will wash his face and eat breakfast. After he (eats, will eat) breakfast, he (walks/ will walk his dog) in the park. Bobo (will be chasing squirrels and running/ will have been chasing squirrels and running) in the park for thirty minutes by the time they get home. After they get home, Jeffery will make coffee and enjoy it. By the time he gets to work tomorrow, he will ( have been drinking/ have drunk) the coffee and will be ready to design new websites. Between 9:00 and 11:00, he will check his email and create a few draft web pages. By noon, he (will be calling his customers and discussing/ will have called his customers and discussed) the project progress with them. At 1:00 PM tomorrow, he (will be attending/ will have attended) a monthly meeting. After the meeting is over, he will eat lunch and take a walk in the courtyard. He will work until 5:30 PM. By the time he leaves the office, he (will have created/ will have been creating) the layout of a website. When he gets home, Bobo (will sleep/ will be sleeping) in the living room. Bobo (will sleep/ will have been sleeping) since 3:00 in the afternoon. Jeffery will feed Bobo and take Bobo for a walk in the park. Afterward, they will sit in the living room and watch TV together. By the time Jeffery (goes to bed/ will go to bed) tomorrow, he (will have had/will be having) a full day.

答案:

1. will be waiting for
2.eats
3.will walk his dog
4.will have been chasing squirrels and running
5.have drunk
6.will have called his customers and discussed
7.will be attending
8.will have created
9.will be sleeping
10.will have been sleeping
11.goes to bed
12.will have had

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.

柯旗化。New English Grammar 新英文法。高雄市: 第一出版社。

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