未來簡單式未來進行式一次搞定

未來簡單式未來進行式一次搞定

未來簡單式的概念不只是will或be going to加上原型動詞,進階的英文學習者更需要知道will 和be going to兩者之間的差別以及如何用現在簡單式和現在進行式來表達未來簡單式,未來式中時間子句的用法更是常出現於多益文法考題中,除了上述未來簡單式的相關概念,本文亦分析未來進行式的用法,並在每一個概念中附上相關練習題,文末更附上簡單式與進行式共六個時態多益類型的文法題目及解析,希望讀者讀完後能對來簡單式未來進行式有透徹的了解外,更能進一步應用在多益考試中。

未來簡單式的使用情境與時間字詞

未來簡單式simple future Tense

未來簡單式的使用情境圖

1.未來簡單式的使用情境為未來的某個時間點發生的事情,通常會

will 或Be going to+原型動詞來表達

EX: I will visit my grandparents tomorrow.

I am going to visit my grandparents tomorrow.

Susan won’t be here tomorrow.

Susan isn’t going to be here tomorrow.

2.未來式時間詞中如果是表達一天之中的時段,都是跟tomorrow連用,例如: tomorrow morning, tomorrow afternoon, tomorrow evening, tomorrow night;年、月、季節、星期都是跟next連用,例如next year, next month, next week, next spring, next Monday,如果是有加數字的,表從現在開始到未來多少時間 例如: 5分鐘內,三小時內則用in five minutes, in three hours 來表示。但要比較注意的是有些時間詞如: today, tonight, this morning, this afternoon, this evening, this week, this weekend, this month, this year 可同時用來表達現在、過去、未來,至於是哪個時態端看說話者想表達的情境為何,以this afternoon今晚為例:

現在是下午3點鐘,我正在家裡喝一杯咖啡,用現在式來表達

Right now it’s 3 o’clock. I am drinking a cup of coffee at home this afternoon.

現在是下午3點鐘,我在下午2點時去圖書館,我說我今天下午去圖書館,那這句話相對於現在3點鐘已經是過去式了,就會用過去式來表達

Right now it’s 3 o’clock. I went to the library at 2 o’clock. I went to the library this afternoon.

現在是下午3點鐘,我等等喝完咖啡後要出門散步,我將要去散步,這句話相對於現在3點鐘是未來的事,用未來式表達

Right now it’s 3 o’clock. After I finish drinking this cup of coffee, I am going to take a talk. I am going to take a walk this afternoon.

所以在用today, tonight, 或this + morning, afternoon, evening, week, 等之類的時間詞時要先確定自己想表達的情境為何並選用正確的時態。

練習題:將下列粗體的中文翻成英文

1.現在是晚上七點鐘,你在教室裡,妳六點時吃晚餐,你的老師問你:「今天晚餐你吃什麼?

2.現在是早上10點鐘,你在家裡,你的家人問你:「今天下午你打算做什麼?

3.現在是下午4點鐘,你說:「我的主管正在會議室做簡報。

答案:

1. What did you have for dinner this evening?

2. What are you going to do this afternoon?

3. My director is giving a presentation in the conference room.

未來簡單式中Will 與be going to 的差別

台灣學生在很多表達未來的情境下都習慣用will來表達,殊不知有些情況是不能用will的,而是要用be going to才正確,以下簡述will 和be going to兩者用法的區別,如果讀者想更進一步知道will或be going to更細微的差別可參考Michael Swan所寫的Practical English Usage。

(1)表預測的狀況,可用will或用be going to 表達,兩者皆可

EX: It will be extremely hot tomorrow according to the weather report.

EX: It is going to be extremely hot tomorrow according to the weather report.

根據氣象報告明天將會非常熱,這是預測天氣狀況

*表預測時will 和 be going to 的細微差別:

1.根據「個人的經驗或意見」而做出的預測偏好使用will

EX: A: Could I ask Tina for help? 你覺得我可以找Tina幫忙嗎?

B: I think she is busy now. She won’t want to be disturbed. 我覺得她現在在忙應該不會想被打擾。-> 在此情境中是根據個人意見推測Tina應該不想被打擾,偏好使用will 來表達。

2.根據「現存的證據」而做出的預測偏好使用be going to

EX: Look at those dark clouds. There’s going to be a thunderstorm soon. 看看那些烏雲,待會將會有雷雨。-> 此情境中說話者看著烏雲密布的天空(現在的證據)去推測待會可能會有雷雨。

(2)表事先計畫好未來要做的時候,只能用be going to

EX: A: Do you have plans for lunch? 午餐有什麼計畫

B: Yes. I'm going to have lunch with Alice at Sunflower cafe. Want to join us? 有阿!我和Alice要在向日葵咖啡館一起吃午餐,要不要一起來?

解釋: A 已經計畫好要和Alice一起吃午餐

(3)表意願或當下做的決定,只能用will

A: Oh, I can’t move this desk by myself. It’s too heavy.
我沒法自己搬這張書桌,太重了

B: I'll help you. 我幫你

解釋: B表達意願去幫A搬那張書桌

練習題: 判定情境並用will或/和Be going to填入空格內

1.A: Why did you buy so many bottles of soda?

B: I_________________(hold) a potluck party at my home this weekend.

2. A: Could someone please turn on the air conditioner? It’s so hot here.

B: Sure, I_________(do) it.

3.A: Do you have plans for this weekend?

B: Yes, I____________________(play) tennis with my friends this weekend.

4.A: How about having a cup of coffee together after work?

B: Sounds great. Where?

A: How about the coffee shop across from the bookstore?

B: OK. I ______________(meet) you there in 15 minutes.

5. A: Do you have plans for this summer?

B: Yes, I _________(get) a part-time job this summer. I want to get some work experience.

6. A: I have to leave. My class starts in five minutes. Could you please feed my dog for me?

B: No problem. I _________(feed) him.

7. A: I___________ (take) some aerobics classes.

B: I didn’t know you loved to dance.

A: I need to get some exercise to keep fit.

8. A: I just threw up all the food I ate. Now I feel sick. I have to go home.

B: Uh, I ____________ (give) you a ride.

答案:

1. 表事先計畫好的事 am going to hold 2. 表意願 'll do

3. 表事先計畫好的事 am going to play 4. 表意願 'll meet

5. 表計畫好的事am going to get

6. 表意願'll feed 7. 表事先計畫好的事 am going to take

8. 表意願'll give

未來式時間子句的用法

未來式時間子句的用法

「子句」 是一組有主詞和有動詞的字群

「時間子句」是由時間詞如when, while, before, after等開頭的子句。

I am going to go to class at 6 tomorrow.

I am going to have dinner at 5 tomorrow.

上述兩句話都是用未來簡單式表達,但如果把上述兩句話合併,「在我上課前,我將會吃早餐」英文會寫成:

Before I go to class tomorrow (時間子句) , I am going to have dinner. (主要子句)

注意表達未來的時間子句必須用現在簡單式來表達,不能用will或be going to,主要子句才會用will或be going to 來寫,當時間子句放在句首時通常會打逗號與主要子句隔開,如果是放在後面則不用,例如: I am going to have dinner before I go to class tomorrow.

*表達未來的時間子句,也可用現在進行式現在完成式來表達

While I am traveling in Japan next month, I’m going to buy various souvenirs from different tourist attractions.

未來時間子句中如果想表達這個活動是在未來中持續進行的,可以用現在進行式。上述句子表達在下個月我去日本的旅行的這段時間,我將會買不同景點的紀念品,去日本旅行是下個月我會一直持續的動作,所以可以用現在進行式表達。

After I have finished this article, I will play with my cats.

未來時間子句中如果想強調一件事前完成於另一件事情之前,可用現在完成式來表達。上述句子表達在我完成這篇文章後我將會跟我們貓咪們玩耍,我想強調寫完文章這件事發生在跟貓咪們玩之前,所以用現在完成式表達。

練習題: 填入正確的動詞型態,使用be going to 來表達主要子句中未來式的情況

1. Before I _________(leave) for the airport tonight, I ____________(call) my friends.

2. I ____________(buy) a new dictionary when I _____(go) to the bookstore tomorrow afternoon.

3. Before he ______(leave) the office this evening, he _______(make) copies.

4. Mary __________(go) to a movie after she_______(finish) her homework.

5. We ___________(recommend) our foreign friends to try stinky tofu and beef noodles when they ______(visit) us next month.

6. When you _________(be) in Lukang next week, ____________ (you, visit) the Mazu Temple?

7. Before I ______(go) to bed tonight, I ____________(play) with my cats.

8. I __________(listen) to music while I _________(take) a walk tonight.

答案:

1. leave, am going to call

2. am going to buy, go

3. leaves/has left, is going to make

4. is going to go, finishes/has finished

5. are going to recommend, visit

6. are, are you going to visit

7. go, am going to play

8. am going to listen, am taking

用現在簡單式和現在進行式表達未來簡單式

現在簡單式或現在進行式也可以用來表達未來簡單式,哪些情況可以這樣使用呢?

1.當說話者想表達事前計畫好將要做的事情(有確切的打算、決定要做什麼事)(have a firm intention or have made a definite decision to do something),可以用現在進行式來表達

I am going to go to the library tomorrow.

I am going to the library tomorrow.

上述兩句話的句意是一樣的,注意到第一句話是用未來簡單式表達,第二句話用現在進行式,第二句話雖然是用現在進行式表達,但從tomorrow仍可看出表達是未來的狀況。

*注意: 現在進行式不可用來表達預測未來

You are going to cry when you see this tragedy. 不可以寫You are crying when you see this tragedy. 這是錯誤的句子,句意是當你看到這部悲劇時你將會哭,這個是我預測你將會有的反應,不可以用現在進行式來表達。

*注意: 現在進行式不可用來表達永久性的未來情境

This office building is going to/will have 100 floors. 不可以寫This office building is having 100 floors. 這是錯誤的句子,句意是這棟辦公大樓將會有一百層樓,這是表達恆久性的未來情境,不可以用現在進行式來表達。

2.當說話者想表達確切的時間表(行程安排)時,可以用現在簡單式來表達,這些句子通常含有未來的時間字詞,只有特定動詞可以這樣用,通常是「開始begin/start、結束finish/end、開open、關close、離開leave、回來return/come、抵達arrive、be」這些動詞。

The bookstore opens at 10:00 tomorrow morning.

My calligraphy classes begin next weekend.

Jan’s plane arrives at 9 P.M. next Saturday.

There is a potluck party at 3:30 tomorrow afternoon.

上述句子是用現在簡單式來寫,但是都含有未來的時間詞所以是表達未來簡單式。通常如果是要表達固定的,不變的活動(fixed, unchangeable events)我們會偏好使用現在簡單式

未來進行式Future Progressive Tense

未來進行式Future Progressive Tense

未來進行式Future Progressive Tense

1.未來進行式的使用情境: 在未來的某個時間點正在進行的事情。

EX1: It is six P.M. right now. I am studying English. Tomorrow at this time, I will be watching TV.

現在是晚上六點鐘,我正在學英文;明天六點鐘時我將會正在看電視。

未來進行式Future Progressive Tense

EX2: It is six right now. I will begin to play the piano at seven. My friend will come at eight. I will be playing the piano when my friend comes. 也可以寫成I am going to be playing the piano when my friend comes.

現在是晚上六點鐘,我將在七點鐘的時候開始練鋼琴,我會一直進行練鋼琴這個動作,我朋友八點將會來找我,在我朋友來找我時我將正在練鋼琴。

2. 未來進行式不表示某件事情將會正在進行的用法:

(1)未來進行式也可以不表示某件事情將會正在進行,而是拿來表達已經安排好決定好的事情,或正常情況下預計要發生的事情。

Jenny will be attending another dance class at the same time next week.

Jenny在下周同一個時間將會上另一堂舞蹈課。

-> 這是已經安排好的事情,預計會發生的事情。

3.未來進行式也可以不表示某件事情將會正在進行,而是用來客氣地表達意見或詢問別人的計畫,用未來進行式詢問別人的打算時,代表說話者不想影響聽者的意圖。

EX: I will be taking my cats to the vet. 我將要帶我的貓咪們去看獸醫

用未來進行表示我將要帶我的貓咪們去看獸醫比I will take my cats to the vet.的語氣要客氣。

EX: Will you be staying with us for dinner?

VS. Are you going to stay with us for dinner?

兩句話都是問對方:「你將會留下來跟我們一起吃晚餐嗎?」但是Will you be staying with us for dinner? 這句話是客氣地詢問,問的人想要了解聽者的計畫是什麼,會比用Are you going to stay with us for dinner? 來得更有禮貌。

4.未來進行式亦可用來表達你"假定"現在正在發生的事情

EX: Don't call Alice right now. She'll be cooking.現在不用打電話給Alice她應該正在煮飯。這句話中我並不是完全確定Alice是不是正在煮飯,只是我強烈的猜測她可能正在煮飯,如果我今天說 Don't call Alice right now. She is cooking. 用現在進行式講的話代表我百分百確定她現在正在煮飯。

練習題: 下列空格請選用未來進行式或現在簡單式填入正確的動詞型態

1. Right now I am doing yoga. Tomorrow at this time, I _________(do) yoga.

2. Don’t call me at 10:30. I ____________(take) an online class at the library.

3. Tomorrow, I am going to give a presentation at a conference. When I _____(arrive), an audience of 300 businessmen _______(wait) for me.

4. When I ______(go) to bed tonight, my family __________(sleep) and my cats _________(chase) around the room.

5. A: Are you going to be home next Sunday?

B: No, I _______(visit) my younger brother in Taipei.

6. A: How can I contact you while you work overseas?

B: Don’t worry. I ________(stay) at my aunt’s home or _______(work) at the company’s headquarters. You have the phone numbers.

答案:

1. will be doing

2. will be taking

3. arrive, will be waiting

4. go, will be sleeping, will be chasing

5. will be visiting

6. will be staying, will be working

多益時態練習題

本大題將選用多益書籍中時態相關題目做分析,本大題先以複習現在簡單式、過去簡單式、未來簡單式、現在進行式、過去進行式、未來進行式的題目為主

(本網站不做商業用途,無意侵害版權,若有侵權請來信告知會立刻移除)

1. Next year Khosun Industries will ______several employees to work in the new factory in Kuala Lumpur. A) sent B) send C) sends D) sending

(題目出自多益官方全真試題指南IV Test 1 Q101)

2. Daily guided tours of the warehouse ____at 10:00A.M. in the reception area on the first floor. A) begin B) begins C) to begin D) beginning

(題目出自多益官方全真試題指南IV Test 1 Q109)

3. By the time the magazine article on home security devices ______ on the newsstands, the pricing information was already outdated. A) appears B) appeared C) will appear D) appearing

(題目出自多益官方全真試題指南IV Test 2 Q120)

4. Businesses on Ellory Avenue ____early yesterday to allow work crews to repave the street. A) are closed B) to close C) closing D) closed

(題目出自多益官方全真試題指南V Test 1 Q102)

5. Construction on a new wing at the Markunas Museum _______as soon as additional funding has been arranged. A) has been resumed B) will resume C) was resumed D) to be resuming

(題目出自多益官方全真試題指南V Test 1 Q127)

6. The plane was ______its final approach to the airport when it developed a problem with its landing gear. A) made B) making C) make D) makes

(題目出自Complete Guide to the TOEIC TEST P131 Exercise 5.9 Q2)

7. Mr. Sanders ______on a business trip to Tokyo until the end of this week, so he will not be able to complete the sales report as scheduled. A) would have been B) will be C) will have been D) was being

(題目出自新制多益NEW TOEIC 閱讀題庫大全 P93 Q2)

8. If Ms. Lee _______the office renovations to be finished ahead of time, she will authorize the hiring of additional workers. A) will require B) requires C) will have required D) would require

(題目出自新制多益NEW TOEIC 閱讀題庫大全 P93 Q3)

9. Representatives of Kamata Heavy Industries _____with shareholders at 4:00 P.M. next Wednesday to address concerns regarding the proposed merger with KLX Limited. A) had met B) met C) will be meeting D) is meeting.

(題目出自新制多益NEW TOEIC 閱讀題庫大全 P94 Q1)

10. The two accounting firms _______the terms of the merger and will likely release the details of the agreement to the media next Monday. A) negotiates B) negotiating C) are negotiating D) were negotiated

(題目出自新制多益NEW TOEIC 閱讀題庫大全 P100 Q6)

答案:

1. B 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. B 9. C 10. C

題目解析

1. Next year Khosun Industries will ______several employees to work in the new factory in Kuala Lumpur. A) sent B) send C) sends D) sending

從這題目中的Next year和will這兩個關鍵詞可以判定是用未來簡單式,will後面接原型動詞所以選B)send -> 題意: 明年Khosun企業將會派遣好幾個員工到吉隆波的新工廠工作。

2. Daily guided tours of the warehouse ____at 10:00A.M. in the reception area on the first floor. A) begin B) begins C) to begin D) beginning

這題的關鍵詞是daily guided tours of the warehouse 倉庫的每天例行導覽行程,既然是每天的例行行程所以用現在簡單式來表達,這句話的主詞是daily guided tours 是複數故選A)begin -> 題意: 倉庫的每天例行導覽行程始於早上十點在一樓接待處出發。

3. By the time the magazine article on home security devices ______ on the newsstands, the pricing information was already outdated. A) appears B) appeared C) will appear D) appearing

這題要先抓住兩處關鍵詞,一個是by the time在...之前,一個是主要子句中的動詞was,可以推知空格要用過去式的時態,這題的題意是說在家庭安全設備的雜誌文章出現在報攤之前,關於價格的資訊早就已經過期了,兩句話都是設定在過去的時間,所以選B)appeared

4. Businesses on Ellory Avenue ____early yesterday to allow work crews to repave the street. A) are closed B) to close C) closing D) closed

這題的關鍵詞是yesterday,有很明確的過去時間詞,加上題意是在Ellory大道上的店家昨天提早關門讓工作人員可以重新鋪設街道,所以空格選過去簡單式D) closed

5. Construction on a new wing at the Markunas Museum _______as soon as additional funding has been arranged. A) has been resumed B) will resume C) was resumed D) to be resuming

這題要先看懂as soon as 這句時間副詞子句的文意,再看懂主要子句的文意,題意是說一當額外的資金已經被安排好,Markunas博物館新側邊的工程就會重新開始,可以看到as soon as這個子句用的是現在完成式,加上整句題意是資金先安排好,工程才會重新開始,可推知主要子句中的空格要用未來簡單式B) will resume

6. The plane was ______its final approach to the airport when it developed a problem with its landing gear. A) made B) making C) make D) makes

這題要選對答案必須先理解題意,題意是說當飛機正在接近機場要著陸時,它的著陸裝備出現問題。由題意可知飛機正準備著陸是先發生的事情,是一個長時間的背景動作,when it developed a problem with its landing gear中可看到動詞developed是過去簡單式,所以可以推知空格必須用過去進行式來表達,故選B) making

7. Mr. Sanders ______on a business trip to Tokyo until the end of this week, so he will not be able to complete the sales report as scheduled. A) would have been B) will be C) will have been D) was being

這句話第二句中He will not be able to complete the sales report as scheduled是未來簡單式,加上句意的意思是「所以Mr. Sanders 將無法照預期完成銷售報告」,可推知前一句話是Mr. Sanders將會到東京出差到本周末,故推知用未來簡單式 B) will be

8. If Ms. Lee _______the office renovations to be finished ahead of time, she will authorize the hiring of additional workers. A) will require B) requires C) will have required D) would require

這句話考的是假設語氣的第一式,但如果讀者還沒學到假設語氣的用法也沒關係,我們可以用未來簡單式時間副詞子句的觀念來解題,主要子句She will authorize the hiring of additional workers 是未來簡單式,題意是她將會授權雇用額外的員工,If 子句那句是表達未來的時間副詞子句必需用現在簡單式B) requires ,整句話的意思是如果Ms. Lee要求辦公室的翻修要提前完成的話,她將會授權雇用額外的員工

9. Representatives of Kamata Heavy Industries _____with shareholders at 4:00 P.M. next Wednesday to address concerns regarding the proposed merger with KLX Limited. A) had met B) met C) will be meeting D) is meeting.

這句話的關鍵詞是next Wednesday,題意是Kamata 重工業的代表將在下周三四點與股東碰面來處理與KLX Limited合併提案中令人擔憂的問題。加上我們知道未來進行式也可以不表示某件事情將會正在進行,而是拿來表達已經安排好決定好的事情,或正常情況下預計要發生的事情,故答案選C) will be meeting

10. The two accounting firms _______the terms of the merger and will likely release the details of the agreement to the media next Monday. A) negotiates B) negotiating C) are negotiating D) were negotiated

這句話要先看懂題意,兩家會計公司正在協商合併的條款,而且可能在下周三發表協議的細節給媒體。如果讀者無法馬上選正確答案也可以用刪去法,基本上從文意可以先刪B)和D)的選項,B) negotiating是因為不合乎句子結構規則,如果選B)會變成句子沒有動詞,D) were negotiated是被動式,也不合語意,剩下A) negotiates 和C) are negotiating兩個來做選擇,但不能選A) 因為這件事並不是習慣性動作,所以剩下B) are negotiating 現在進行式這個選項,表達兩家公司現在正在協商合併條款

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.

Rogers, Bruce. Complete Guide to the TOEIC TEST. 4th ed. Boston, National Geographic Learning, a Cengage Learning Company, 2018.

ETS, TOEIC Official Test-Preparation Guide Vol.4多益測驗官方全真試題指南IV. Taipei: ETS, 2014.

ETS, TOEIC Official Test-Preparation Guide Vol.5 多益測驗官方全真試題指南V.Taipei: ETS, 2016.

David Cho (2017) 。新制多益NEW TOEIC 閱讀題庫大全。簡郁珮、胡佩萱譯。新北市:國際學村 。

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