未來簡單式入門文法-未來簡單式的多元樣貌,看完秒懂

未來簡單式入門文法-未來簡單式的多元樣貌,看完秒懂

在問到未來簡單式的用法時,許多學生會回答will或be going to加上原型動詞,這是未來簡單式的句子結構,但是你知道will和be going to兩者之間的差別嗎? 另外,你知道現在簡單式和現在進行式在某些情況下也可以用來表達未來簡單式嗎? 本文逐一說明未來簡單式的使用情境、基本句子結構、will 與 be going to 的差別、未來式中時間子句的用法、及解釋哪些情況可以用現在簡單式和現在進行式來表達未來簡單式。

未來簡單式的使用情境與時間字詞

未來簡單式的使用情境圖

1.未來簡單式的使用情境: 在未來的某個時間點發生的事情。

用 will 或Be going to+原型動詞來表達

EX: It will rain tomorrow. 明天將會下雨

EX: It is going to rain tomorrow. 明天將會下雨

Will或be going to 就像中文的 「將會」

2.未來式時間詞列表

tomorrow next in

tomorrow明天

tomorrow morning 明天早上

tomorrow afternoon 明天下午

tomorrow evening 明天傍晚

tomorrow night明天晚上

next year 明年

next month 下個月

next week 下周

next spring 明年春天

next Monday下周一

in five minutes
五分鐘內

in two days 兩天內

tomorrow跟morning, afternoon, evening, night 連用

年、月、季節、星期都是跟next連用。

如果是有加數字的,表從現在開始到未來多少時間 例如: 5分鐘內,則用in +five minutes 來表示

練習題:

1.下周五 2. 下周末 3.明年夏天 4.明天傍晚 5. 三天內 6. 下個月

答案:

1. next Friday 2. next weekend 3. next summer

4. tomorrow evening 5.in three days 6.next month

3.可用來表達現在、過去、未來的時間詞

可用來表達現在、過去、未來的時間詞有today, tonight, this morning this afternoon, this evening, this week, this weekend, this month, this year

以tonight今晚為例

現在是晚上8點鐘,今晚我正在家裡讀一本書,用現在式來表達

Right now it’s 8 o’clock. I am reading a book at home tonight.

現在是晚上8點鐘,我媽在晚上7點時去超市,我說我媽今晚去超市,那這句話相對於現在8點鐘已經是過去式了,就會用過去式來表達

Right now it’s 8 o’clock. My mom went to the supermarket at 7 o’clock. My mom went to the supermarket tonight.

現在是晚上8點鐘,我等等讀完書後要上床睡覺,我今晚將要上床睡覺,這句話相對於現在8點鐘是未來的時間點發生的事,用未來式表達

Right now it’s 8 o’clock. After I finish reading the book, I am going to go to bed. I am going to go to bed tonight.

所以在用today, tonight, this morning, this afternoon, this evening, this week, this weekend, this month, this year 這些時間詞時要知道自己想表達的時間點到底是何時。

練習題:將下列粗體的中文翻成英文

1.現在是早上9點鐘,你在教室裡,妳七點時吃早餐,你的老師問你:「今天早餐你吃什麼?

2.現在是早上9點鐘,你在辦公室裡,你的同事問你:「今天下班後你打算做什麼?

3.現在是早上9點鐘,你在辦公室裡,你的主管問你:「你今天早上正在做什麼?

答案:

1. What did you have for breakfast this morning?

2. What are you going to do after work today?

3. What are you doing this morning?

未來簡單式的句型變化

1.未來簡單式Be going to句型變化

肯定句:

I am going to study English tomorrow.

She/He/It is going to study English tomorrow.

You/We/They are going to study English tomorrow.

I am going to be here tomorrow.

*注意如果句子中沒有一般動詞記得要放上be動詞,要不然該句子沒有動詞就錯誤了。

否定句: 在Be動詞後面加上not

I am not going to study English tomorrow.

She/He/It is not going to study English tomorrow.

You/We/They are not going to study English tomorrow.

I am not going to be here tomorrow.

縮寫寫法

I'm not going to study English tomorrow.

She/He/It isn’t going to study English tomorrow.

You/We/They aren’t going to study English tomorrow.

I’m not going to be here tomorrow.

Yes/No 問句: 把Be動詞挪到句首

Am I going to study English tomorrow?

Is She/He/It going to study English tomorrow?

Are You/We/They going to study English tomorrow.

Are you going to be here tomorrow?

Wh-問句:

What are you going to do tomorrow?

I am going to study English tomorrow.

2.未來簡單式 Will句型變化

肯定句:

I will study English tomorrow.

She/He/It will study English tomorrow.

You/We/They will study English tomorrow.

I will be here tomorrow.

縮寫寫法

I'll study English tomorrow.

It/She/He'll study English tomorrow.

You/We/They'll study English tomorrow.

I’ll be here tomorrow.

否定句: will 後面加上not

I will not study English tomorrow.

She/He/It will not study English tomorrow.

You/We/They will not study English tomorrow.

I will not be here tomorrow.

縮寫寫法will not 可以縮寫成won’t

I won’t study English tomorrow.

She/He/It won’t study English tomorrow.

You/We/They won’t study English tomorrow.

Yes/No 問句: 把Will挪到句首

Will I study English tomorrow?

Will She/He/It study English tomorrow?

Will You/We/They study English tomorrow.

Wh-問句:

When will you come tomorrow?

I will come at three o’clock tomorrow.

Where will you be tomorrow morning?

At school.

練習題一: 用未來簡單式be going to 的寫法搭配正確的動詞型態完成下列對話

A: What are you going to do for the Dragon Boat Festival?

B: I don’t know. I ____________(not do) anything special.

A: Well, my roommate and I _________(make) rice dumplings at home. Do you want to join us?

B: Sure! What time _______you ________(start)?

A: At three o’clock. And we ________(have) a potluck party at seven o’clock.

B: Who else ______you ________(invite)?

A: We are going to invite our neighbors and some of our classmates.

答案:

1.am not going to do

2.are going to make

3. are you going to start

4. are you going to have

5. are you going to invite

練習題二: 造原問句

1.A: ________________________________________?

B: No, I won’t. I won’t come to office tomorrow.

A: Why?

B: I am going to Taipei for vacation.

2. A: _________________________________________?

B: Tomorrow morning. I will have a doctor’s appointment tomorrow morning.

3.A:________________________________________?

B: In Paris. John will be in Pairs next month.

4.A:________________________________________?

B: No, I won’t. I won’t be in class early tomorrow morning.

答案:

1.Will you come to office tomorrow?

2. When will you have a doctor’s appointment?

3. Where will John be next month?

4. Will you be in class early tomorrow morning?

未來簡單式的使用情境圖

未來簡單式中Will 與be going to 的差別

will 和be going to都可以用來表達未來簡單式,但兩者在情境上的用法有其區別:

(1)表預測的狀況,可用will或用be going to 表達,兩者皆可

EX: It will rain tomorrow. 明天將會下雨

EX: It is going to rain tomorrow. 明天將會下雨

(2)表事先計畫好未來要做的時候,只能用be going to

EX: A:Why did you buy this train ticket? 你為什麼買火車票

B: I’m going to visit my uncle in Taipei tomorrow. 我明天要去台北拜訪叔伯

解釋: B一定是有先計畫好要去台北,才會買好車票

(3)表意願或當下做的決定,只能用will

A: Oh, I’ve spilled tea on my blouse. 我把茶翻倒濺到我的襯衫

B: I'll get a cloth for you. 我幫你拿一條抹布

解釋: B表達意願去幫A拿一條抹布

練習題: 請判別下列情境是表預測、事先計畫好的事情、或意願

1.A: Why are you carrying a suitcase?

B: I’m going to take a vacation.

2. A: Could someone please turn on the fan? It’s so hot here.

B: Sure, I’ll do it.

3.A: Do you have plans for tonight?

B: Yes, I’m going to have dinner with my younger brother tonight.

4.A: How about having a cup of coffee together after work?

B: Sounds great. Where?

A: How about the coffee shop across from the bookstore?

B: OK. I 'll meet you there in 15 minutes.

5. My son will graduate in June and he will go to summer camp in July.

6. A: How do you use this copy machine?

B: I don’t know. I 'll check the instructions for you.

7. A: I am going to sign up for yoga classes tomorrow.

B: I didn’t know you loved to do yoga.

A: I need to do more exercise to keep fit.

8. A: Your cell phone is ringing.

B: I 'll get it.

答案:

1. 表事先計畫好的事 2. 表意願 3. 表事先計畫好的事 4. 表意願

5. 表預測 6. 表意願 7. 表事先計畫好的事 8. 表意願

題目解析:

1.A: Why are you carrying a suitcase? 為什麼你提著行李箱

B: I’m going to take a vacation. 因為我將要去渡假

->B一定是已經計畫好要去度假才會現在正提著行李箱

2. A: Could someone please turn on the fan? It’s so hot here.

你可以打開風扇嗎?這裡好熱

B: Sure, I’ll do it. 沒問題我馬上開

-> B表達願意去幫A開風扇

3.A: Do you have plans for tonight? 你今晚有計畫嗎?

B: Yes, I’m going to have dinner my younger brother tonight. 有的,我今晚將要跟我弟弟吃晚餐

->A問B是否有計畫,B表示是有計畫的,所以跟他弟弟吃晚餐是事前計畫好的

4.A: How about having a cup of coffee together after work? 下班後一起去喝杯咖啡如何?

B: Sounds great. Where?聽起來不錯? 去哪?

A: How about the coffee shop across from the bookstore? 書店對面的咖啡店好嗎?

B: OK. I 'll meet you there in 15 minutes. 沒問題。15分鐘內碰面

->B對於A的邀約當下做決定表示會願意跟A一起喝咖啡

5. My son will graduate in June and he will go to summer camp in July.

我的兒子將會在6月畢業,七月參加暑期營隊

-> 這句話是說明我的兒子在未來的時間點將會做的事情,所以是表預測

6. A: How do you use this copy machine? 要怎麼用這台影印機?

B: I don’t know. I 'll check the instructions for you. 我不知道,我幫你看看說明書

-> B聽完A的問題當下決定願意幫A看說明書

7. A: I am going to sign up for yoga classes tomorrow. 明天我將登記上瑜珈課

B: I didn’t know you loved to do yoga. 我不知道你喜歡做瑜珈

A: I need to do more exercise to get fit. 我需要多做點運動保持健康

-> A因為覺得需要保持健康所以事前計畫了明天要登記上瑜珈課這件事

8. A: Your cell phone is ringing. 你的手機在響

B: I 'll get it. 我來接

-> B表達接電話的意願,B事前並不知道他的手機將會響所以不可能事先計畫好要接電話

未來式時間子句的用法

過去進行式入門文法的文章中,我們提到時間子句的概念,「子句」 是一組有主詞和有動詞的字群;「時間子句」是由時間詞如when, while, before, after等開頭的子句。

I am going to go to work at 9 tomorrow.

I am going to have a cup of tea at 8 tomorrow.

上述兩句話都是用未來簡單式表達,但如果把上述兩句話合併,「在我上班前,我將會喝一杯茶」英文會寫成:

Before I go to work tomorrow,(時間子句) I am going to have a cup of tea.(主要子句)

要注意的是表達未來的時間子句必須用現在簡單式來表達,不能用will或be going to,主要子句才會用will或be going to 來寫,當時間子句放在句首時通常會打逗號與主要子句隔開,如果是放在後面則不用,例如: I am going to have a cup of tea before I go to work tomorrow.

練習題: 填入正確的動詞型態,使用be going to 來表達未來

1. Before I _________(go) to class tonight, I ____________(feed) my cats.

2. I ____________(buy) a new pencil box when I _____(go) to the bookstore tomorrow afternoon.

3. After he ______(leave) the office this evening, he _______(play) badminton.

4. Mary __________(watch) TV after she_______(finish) her homework.

5. We ___________(take) our foreign friends to our favorite night market when they ______(visit) us next month.

6. When you _________(be) in Paris next week, ____________ (you, see) the Mona Lisa at the Louvre museum?

7. Before I ______(go) to bed tonight, I ____________(read) a short story.

8. She __________(stay) in her friend’s house when she _____(visit) Phoenix next year.

答案:

1. go, am going to feed

2. am going to buy, go

3. leaves, is going to play

4. is going to watch, finishes

5. are going to take, visit

6. are, are you going to see

7. go, am going to read

8. is going to stay, visits

用現在簡單和現在進行表達未來簡單式

用現在簡單和現在進行表達未來簡單式

未來簡單式的某些情況也可以用現在簡單式或現在進行式來表達:

1.當說話者想表達事前計畫好將要做的事情(有確切的打算,決定要做什麼事),可以用現在進行式來表達

I am going to fly to Japan next week.

I am flying to Japan next week.

上述這兩句話的文意是一模一樣的,第一句話用未來簡單式表達,第二句話用現在進行式來表達,雖然是用現在進行式表達,但從時間字詞next week仍可看出表達是未來的狀況。

*注意: 現在進行式不可用來預測未來(事件是我們無法掌控或事先安排的)

It's going to rain soon.

快要下雨了。這個是我預測天氣,天氣不在我們的掌控範圍內,所以不可以用現在進行式表達It's raining soon. -> 這是錯誤的

*注意: 現在進行式不可用來表達永久性的未來情境

This office building is going to/will have 100 floors. 不可以寫This office building is having 100 floors. 這是錯誤的句子,句意是這棟辦公大樓將會有一百層樓,這是表達恆久性的未來情境,不可以用現在進行式來表達。

2.當說話者想表達確切的時間表(行程安排)時,可以用現在簡單式來表達,這些句子通常含有未來的時間字詞,只有特定動詞可以這樣用,通常是「開始begin/start、結束finish/end、開open、關close、離開leave、回來return/come、抵達arrive、be」這些動詞。

The library opens at 8:00 tomorrow morning.

My yoga classes begin next weekend.

Margaret’s plane arrives at 7 P.M. next Sunday.

There is an orientation at 3 tomorrow afternoon.

上述句子是用現在簡單式來寫,但是都含有未來的時間詞所以是表達未來簡單式。

練習題: 判定下列情境中粗體字的動詞是表達未來、現在此時此刻、或是習慣性動作。

1. My cats usually wake up at 4 A.M.

2. Mother’s Day is coming. My brother is sending my mother a cake next week. That’s what he usually gives her.

3. The movie starts in 3 minutes. Come back as soon as possible.

4. A: What are you doing?

B: I am cooking a delicious meal for my cat. It’s her birthday.

5.A: How about going hiking on the weekend?

B: I can’t. I am meeting my professor to discuss my thesis this weekend.

6. The bus leaves every hour on the hour.

7. I’m wearing my new dress to my cousin’s wedding next Saturday.

When I go to work, I usually wear a suit.

I am at home now. I am wearing a T-shirt and a short skirt right now.

答案:

1. 習慣性動作 2. 未來、 習慣性動作 3. 未來

4. 現在此時此刻、現在此時此刻 5. 未來

6. 習慣性動作 7. 未來、習慣性動作、現在此時此刻

題目解析:

1. My cats usually wake up at 4 A.M.

我的貓咪們通常四點醒來。-> 這是經常性發生的動作所以是表習慣動作

2. Mother’s Day is coming. My brother is sending my mother a cake next week. That’s what he usually gives her.

母親節即將來臨,我的兄弟下周將送我媽媽一個蛋糕,那通常是他常買的東西。-> 我兄弟下周將送我媽一個蛋糕,這句話裡有「下周」這個未來時間詞,所以雖然是用現在進行式寫,實際上表達的是未來的狀況;第三句話表達蛋糕是我兄弟常買的東西,可能每年母親節都買蛋糕送媽媽,所以是經常性的習慣動作

3. The movie starts in 3 minutes. Come back as soon as possible.

電影三分鐘內即將開始,盡可能快點回來。-> 「三分鐘內」是未來時間詞,所以雖然用現在簡單式寫,實際表達的是未來的狀況

4. A: What are you doing?

你現在在做什麼?

B: I am cooking a delicious meal for my cat. It’s her birthday.我正在為我的貓咪煮一餐美食,今天是她的生日。-> 文意上都是說現在此時此刻正在做的事情

5.A: How about going hiking on the weekend?

周末一起去健行如何?

B: I can’t. I am meeting my professor to discuss my thesis this weekend.

我沒辦法去,這周末我要跟我的教授討論我的論文。->有「這周末」未來時間詞,所以雖然是用現在進行式寫,實際上表達的是未來的狀況

6. The bus leaves every hour on the hour.

公車每個整點離開

-> 既然是每個整點離開,該句也沒有未來時間詞,所以是表達習慣性動作

7. I’m wearing my new dress to my cousin’s wedding next Saturday.

下周六我將會穿我的新洋裝去我表弟的婚禮。-> 有未來時間詞「下周六」所以是表未來

When I go to work, I usually wear a suit.

當我上班時我通常穿套裝。-> 講的是上班時常穿的衣服,所以是表達習慣性

I am at home now. I am wearing a T-shirt and a short skirt right now.

我現在在家,我正穿著一件T襯衫和短裙-> 文意表達現在此時此刻正穿著T襯衫和短裙

觀看更多英文文法

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

Azar, Betty Schramfer. Fundamentals of English Grammar. 4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2011

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