過去完成進行式用以表達在過去持續一段時間後剛停止的動作，這個剛停止的動作非常接近另一個過去的時間點或導致過去某個結果 (Result of Activity)
When Mom came into the room, her hands were dirty because she had been doing the gardening in the yard.
Susan’s dog passed away a few days ago. I went to her home to comfort her. Her eyes were red and puffy because she had been crying.
現在是晚上十點鐘，我很累因為我剛剛連續教了三個小時的英文，注意這邊的時間點 It is 10 P.M. now.用的是現在簡單式，代表教英文這動作是從過去一直持續「到現在」，所以使用現在完成進行式表達。
晚上十點鐘，我很累因為我剛剛連續教了三個小時的英文，中文翻譯跟上一個例句相同，但請注意這邊的時間點 It was 10 P.M. 用的是過去簡單式，代表教英文這動作是從過去某個時間點一直持續「到過去另一個時間點」，所以使用過去完成進行式表達。
My supervisor finally came at 7:00. I had been waiting for him since 6:00.
1. Jenny had been studying Japanese and living in Japan since she was six years old. ____. 2. Jessica has been studying Japanese since she was six years old. ____.
選項A) Her Japanese is getting better and better. 選項B) She spoke Japanese well by the time she moved to Taiwan.
3. My cats have been sleeping for more than two hours. ______. 4. _________. They had been sleeping for more than two hours.
選項C) They are still sleeping on my bed right now. 選項D) My cats finally woke up at 5 P.M.
5. John had been jogging for almost an hour. _____. 6. Jesse has been jogging for fifteen minutes. _____.
選項E) It’s too hot. He thinks he should stop and go home. 選項F) He got thirsty and went home.
7. Your hands are wet and dirty. ______. 8. Her hands were wet and dirty because _______.
選項G) she had been planting some catnip in the garden. 選項H) What have you been doing?
9. The brown cat finally caught the prey. _____. 10. It is 1 A.M. now. ______.
選項I) She had been looking for it since midnight. 選項J) The cats have been looking for the prey since midnight.
答案: 1B 2A 3C 4D 5F 6E 7H 8G 9I 10J
過去完成進行式與過去完成式的差別和現在完成式與現在完成進行式的概念相似，只是時間點全部移到「過去」，進行式用於表達暫時性的動作或狀態，而如果要表達恆久性的狀態、已經做完的事情、或動詞是非動作動詞時(be, know, remember, love, have等)會用完成式來表達，我們來看幾個例句:
My throat was sore because I had been talking for six straight hours.
The temple that collapsed in the 921 earthquake had stood there for 100 years.
Ryan had read all of his English novels, so he decided to buy new ones.
Ryan had been reading the Harry Potter books and his dreams were full of magic, wizards, and talking animals.
When I decided to adopt my cats, I had known them for only one week.
1. Jerry couldn’t fall asleep easily, but he didn’t follow his doctor’s instructions. He tossed and turned throughout the night. He ______(not, sleep) well until he took his sleeping pills. His neighbor, Mary, also suffered from insomnia, but she followed the instructions. She______(take) her sleeping pills before she went to bed.
2. Larry wasn’t happy with his editor’s decision because he _____(finish) writing the draft of his new book by the time his editor told him to change the topic. Sue finished the first draft of her new book in December. She __________ (work on) it since the beginning of the year.
3. Emma cut her fingers badly while cooking. She _____(have trouble) typing for a week by the time she went to the doctor. Now she is better. Jill fell off her bike and hit her head. She was unconscious. A passerby called an ambulance and sent Jill to a hospital. By the time Jill woke up, the passerby ___(leave).
4. Sophia _______(work) as a saleswoman for two years when she was promoted to Sales Manager. Jan, who _____(be) Sophia’s best friend for more than twenty years, was very happy to know this and wanted to treat Sophia to a big meal.
5. As a course consultant, May needed to introduce courses to her potential customers. She took some cough drops because she _______(talk) for five straight hours. On the weekend, she went to her grandparents’ home and saw the Banyan tree she loved. The Banyan tree _____(stand) there for more than 80 years before she was born.
1. had not been sleeping, had taken
2. had finished, had been working on
3. had been having trouble, had left
4. had been working, had been
5. had been talking, had stood
Lily ate dinner at 6 P.M., made some tea at 6:30, and started to do some research on mythology at 7 P.M. At 7:30 P.M., her friend came to visit her. Before Lily started to do research, she had already eaten her dinner. While Lily was doing research, her friend came to visit her. Lily had been doing research for half an hour before her friend came.
Lily ate dinner at 6 P.M., made some tea at 6:30, and started to do some research on mythology at 7 P.M. At 7:30 P.M., her friend came to visit her.
Before Lily started to do research, she had already eaten dinner.
在Lily開始做研究之前她已經吃完晚餐了，當兩件事情都發生在過去要表達先後順序時，先發生的事情用過去完成來表達，後發生的事情用過去簡單式，當然這一個例句我也可以兩句都用過去簡單式來寫，Before Lily started to do research, she ate dinner. 因為before這個字已經明顯的表達事件的先後順序。
While Lily was doing research, her friend came.
Lily had been doing research for half an hour before her friend came to visit her.
2. Judy suddenly realized that her husband was calling her. She didn’t notice because she _________for the last three minutes. A) had been daydreaming B) has been daydreaming C) was daydreaming D) daydreamed
3. Jesse ____a promotion three months ago. He has been working long hours since then. A) gets B) had got C) got D) was getting
4. While I _____ through some English education journals, I found some interesting classroom activities. A) browsed B) have been browsing C) had been browsing D) was browsing
5. I didn’t know much about Korean food. Actually, I ____never ___kimchi until I visited Korea. A) had...eaten B) had...been eating C) was...eating D) have...eaten
6. I was getting worried when you called. I was afraid you ____the wrong bus. A) have taken B) had taken C) had been taking D) have been taking
7. I woke my cats up at 9 P.M. They _________soundly since 5 P.M. A) have slept B) had been sleeping C) have been sleeping D) had slept
8. David is going to give a performance next Saturday. He _______the guitar a lot because he hopes to give a terrific performance. A) had been practicing B) practiced C) has been practicing D) had practiced
9. Sarah put some lotion and ointment on her skin because she _______ in the sun for a long time. A) has been walking B) had walked C) had been walking D) was walking
10. Rose is good at planning ahead. When she found that she _______food, she went to the supermarket. On the other hand, Kevin is not good at planning ahead. He went to the store when he ________food. A) had run out of; was running out of B) was running out of; had run out of
Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.
Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.