過去完成進行式例句用法

過去完成進行式例句用法

過去完成進行式是英文12時態中大家比較不熟悉也不常用的,什麼時候會用到過去完成進行式呢?過去完成進行式主要用於表達某活動從過去的某個時間點一直持續進行到另一個過去時間點持續多久了,或剛結束的活動,基本上跟「現在完成進行式」的概念相似,只不過時間全部推移到過去而已,本文首先解釋過去完成進行式例句用法,再拿過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式做比較,接著比較過去完成進行式及過去完成式,最後以一個完整的情境總結「過去簡單式、過去進行式、過去完成式與過去完成進行式」,讓讀者一次複習並搞懂過去時間中的四個時態。

過去完成進行式例句用法

過去完成進行式的公式是had been +V-ing 例如: I had been running. She hadn’t been reading. Where had he been staying?

用法一:
過去完成進行式主要用於表達某活動從過去的某個時間點一直持續進行到另一個過去時間點持續多久了

例一:

It’s 8 P.M now. I started to look for my key at 4 P.M. I found it at 6 P.M. I had been looking for my key for two hours before I found it.

過去完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例1

現在是晚上八點鐘,我從下午四點開始找我的鑰匙,到傍晚六點的時候終於找到了,開始找鑰匙和找到鑰匙這動作都是發生在過去確切的時間點,用過去簡單式描述,在我找到我的鑰匙之前,我已經找它兩小時了,用過去完成進行式表示找鑰匙的動作持續了兩個小時。

例二:

It’s 8 P.M. now. I started to wait for Winne’s call at 6: 30 P.M. Winnie finally called me at seven o’clock. I had been waiting for her call since six-thirty.

過去完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例2

現在是晚上八點鐘,我從下午六點半開始等Winne的電話,到七點的時候Winnie終於打給我了,開始等電話和Winnie打電話這動作都是發生在過去確切的時間點,用過去簡單式描述,自從六點半我開始等Winnie的電話到七點,用過去完成進行式表示等待的動作持續了半小時。

例三:

It’s 8 P.M now. I started to drive at noon. I arrived at the airport at 3 P.M. When I arrived at the airport, I had been driving for 3 hours.

過去完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例3

現在是晚上八點鐘,我中午十二點開始開車啟程,下午三點抵達機場,這兩句都用過去簡單式描述,當我抵達機場時我已經開車三小時了,用過去完成進行式表示等待的動作持續了三小時。

用法二:
過去完成進行式用以表達在過去持續一段時間後剛停止的動作,這個剛停止的動作非常接近另一個過去的時間點或導致過去某個結果 (Result of Activity)

例一:
When Mom came into the room, her hands were dirty because she had been doing the gardening in the yard.

當媽媽走進房間時她的手很髒,因為她剛剛一直在院子裡做園藝。注意整個事件的時間都發生於過去;媽媽走進房間這個動作發生於過去某個時間點,在走進房間之前她一直做園藝的動作「導致」她的手髒髒的,做園藝這個動作「剛停止」,那稍早之前一直做園藝的動作會用過去完成進行式表達。

例二:

Eugene was tired and sweaty because he had been running.

過去完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例4

Eugene很累且有汗味因為他剛跑步。注意整個事件的時間都發生於過去;Eugene跑步這個動作「剛停止」,跑步的事實「導致」他很累且有汗味,那跑步的動作會用過去完成進行式表達。

例三:
Susan’s dog passed away a few days ago. I went to her home to comfort her. Her eyes were red and puffy because she had been crying.

過去完成進行式例句用法情境圖範例5

Susan的狗幾天前去世了,我去她家安慰她,她的眼睛紅紅腫腫的因為她剛哭過。注意整個事件的時間都發生於過去;Susan哭的動作「剛停止」並「導致」她眼睛紅腫,那剛哭過一段時間的動作會用過去完成進行式表達。

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式的差別

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式概念相似,都可以用來表達某活動持續進行到另一個時間點或另一個活動之前,差別只在於這個另一個時間點是「到過去」或是「到現在」,如果是這活動是從過去某個時間點開始持續「到現在」就使用「現在完成進行式」表達;如果是這活動是從過去某個時間點開始持續「到過去另一個時間點」,就使用「過去完成進行式」表達,如果讀者對現在完成進行式概念模糊,建議先閱讀 "現在完成進行式例句與現在完成式之比較"這篇文章,再繼續往下看,現在我們來看幾組相似的例句:

例一:

It is 10 P.M. now. I am tired because I have been teaching English for three straight hours.

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式的差別情境圖範例6

現在是晚上十點鐘,我很累因為我剛剛連續教了三個小時的英文,注意這邊的時間點 It is 10 P.M. now.用的是現在簡單式,代表教英文這動作是從過去一直持續「到現在」,所以使用現在完成進行式表達。

It was 10 P.M. I was tired because I had been teaching English for three straight hours.

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式的差別情境圖範例7

晚上十點鐘,我很累因為我剛剛連續教了三個小時的英文,中文翻譯跟上一個例句相同,但請注意這邊的時間點 It was 10 P.M. 用的是過去簡單式,代表教英文這動作是從過去某個時間點一直持續「到過去另一個時間點」,所以使用過去完成進行式表達。

例二:

I have been waiting for my supervisor since 6:00. I am still waiting for him now.

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式的差別情境圖範例8

我從六點開始等我的主管,等到現在還在等,注意這邊的時間是從過去的六點一直持續「到現在」,所以用現在完成進行式表達。

My supervisor finally came at 7:00. I had been waiting for him since 6:00.

過去完成進行式與現在完成進行式的差別情境圖範例9

我的主管在七點鐘時出現了,我從六點就開始等我的主管,注意兩個時間點都發生在過去,我等我主管這個動作是從過去某個時間點一直持續「到過去另一個時間點」,所以使用過去完成進行式表達。

過去完成進行式VS現在完成進行式練習題: 選出符合邏輯的敘述

1. Jenny had been studying Japanese and living in Japan since she was six years old. ____.
2. Jessica has been studying Japanese since she was six years old. ____.

選項A) Her Japanese is getting better and better.
選項B) She spoke Japanese well by the time she moved to Taiwan.

3. My cats have been sleeping for more than two hours. ______.
4. _________. They had been sleeping for more than two hours.

選項C) They are still sleeping on my bed right now.
選項D) My cats finally woke up at 5 P.M.

5. John had been jogging for almost an hour. _____.
6. Jesse has been jogging for fifteen minutes. _____.

選項E) It’s too hot. He thinks he should stop and go home.
選項F) He got thirsty and went home.

7. Your hands are wet and dirty. ______.
8. Her hands were wet and dirty because _______.

選項G) she had been planting some catnip in the garden.
選項H) What have you been doing?

9. The brown cat finally caught the prey. _____.
10. It is 1 A.M. now. ______.

選項I) She had been looking for it since midnight.
選項J) The cats have been looking for the prey since midnight.

答案: 1B 2A 3C 4D 5F 6E 7H 8G 9I 10J

過去完成進行式與過去完成式的差別

過去完成進行式與過去完成式的差別

過去完成進行式與過去完成式的差別和現在完成式與現在完成進行式的概念相似,只是時間點全部移到「過去」,進行式用於表達暫時性的動作或狀態,而如果要表達恆久性的狀態、已經做完的事情、或動詞是非動作動詞時(be, know, remember, love, have等)會用完成式來表達,我們來看幾個例句:

例句組一:
過去完成進行式表達「暫時性」的狀態
My throat was sore because I had been talking for six straight hours.

解釋: 因為連講了六個小時的話導致我的喉嚨很痛,連講六小時的話是一個暫時性的動作,所以在此例句中用過去完成進行式而非過去完成式表達。

過去完成式表達「持續很久」的狀態
The temple that collapsed in the 921 earthquake had stood there for 100 years.

解釋: 在921大地震中崩塌的寺廟之前已存在100年之久。寺廟存在100年是個較長的時間,故用過去完成式表達。

例句組二:
過去完成式表達過去某個時間點之前已經做完的事情(earlier past)
Ryan had read all of his English novels, so he decided to buy new ones.

解釋: Ryan已經讀完他所有的英文小說,所以他決定買一些新的。在此例句中在他決定買新小說之前,Ryan已經讀完他所有的英文小,這是一個已經完成的結束的動作,所以會使用過去完成式。

過去完成進行式表達在過去某段時間持續進行暫時性的活動
Ryan had been reading the Harry Potter books and his dreams were full of magic, wizards, and talking animals.

解釋: 在過去的某段時間中Ryan一直在讀哈利波特小說,他的夢境充滿著魔法、巫師、和會說話的動物。一直在讀哈利波特小說是Ryan在過去某段時間持續進行的暫時性活動,並非永久性的狀態,故使用過去完成進行式來表達。

例句三:
當動詞是非動作動詞時使用過去完成式而非過去完成進行式
When I decided to adopt my cats, I had known them for only one week.

解釋: 當我決定收養我的貓咪們時,我已認識他們一周了;「know認識」這個動詞是一個非動作動詞,本身就不會用進行式的型態,又因為兩件事前都發生在過去,我認識我的貓咪們是先發生的事件,使用過去完成式表達,決定收養他們是後發生的事情,用過去簡單式表達。若讀者想對過去完成式有進一步了解可點讀"過去完成式例句用法解析"這篇文章。

練習題: 請填入過去完成式或過去完成進行式的正確動詞型態

1. Jerry couldn’t fall asleep easily, but he didn’t follow his doctor’s instructions. He tossed and turned throughout the night. He ______(not, sleep) well until he took his sleeping pills. His neighbor, Mary, also suffered from insomnia, but she followed the instructions. She______(take) her sleeping pills before she went to bed.

2. Larry wasn’t happy with his editor’s decision because he _____(finish) writing the draft of his new book by the time his editor told him to change the topic. Sue finished the first draft of her new book in December. She __________ (work on) it since the beginning of the year.

3. Emma cut her fingers badly while cooking. She _____(have trouble) typing for a week by the time she went to the doctor. Now she is better. Jill fell off her bike and hit her head. She was unconscious. A passerby called an ambulance and sent Jill to a hospital. By the time Jill woke up, the passerby ___(leave).

4. Sophia _______(work) as a saleswoman for two years when she was promoted to Sales Manager. Jan, who _____(be) Sophia’s best friend for more than twenty years, was very happy to know this and wanted to treat Sophia to a big meal.

5. As a course consultant, May needed to introduce courses to her potential customers. She took some cough drops because she _______(talk) for five straight hours. On the weekend, she went to her grandparents’ home and saw the Banyan tree she loved. The Banyan tree _____(stand) there for more than 80 years before she was born.

答案:
1. had not been sleeping, had taken
2. had finished, had been working on
3. had been having trouble, had left
4. had been working, had been
5. had been talking, had stood

過去完成進行式,過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式例句比較

Lily ate dinner at 6 P.M., made some tea at 6:30, and started to do some research on mythology at 7 P.M. At 7:30 P.M., her friend came to visit her. Before Lily started to do research, she had already eaten her dinner. While Lily was doing research, her friend came to visit her. Lily had been doing research for half an hour before her friend came.

解釋:
Lily ate dinner at 6 P.M., made some tea at 6:30, and started to do some research on mythology at 7 P.M. At 7:30 P.M., her friend came to visit her.
Lily六點吃晚餐,六點半泡茶,七點開始做關於神話的研究,七點半時她朋友來拜訪她。這些事情都是發生在過去的某個時間點,用過去簡單式表達。

Before Lily started to do research, she had already eaten dinner.
在Lily開始做研究之前她已經吃完晚餐了,當兩件事情都發生在過去要表達先後順序時,先發生的事情用過去完成來表達,後發生的事情用過去簡單式,當然這一個例句我也可以兩句都用過去簡單式來寫,Before Lily started to do research, she ate dinner. 因為before這個字已經明顯的表達事件的先後順序。

While Lily was doing research, her friend came.
當Lily正在做研究時,她的朋友來拜訪她。Lily從七點開始做研究一直做,做到七點半她朋友來時還正在做研究,過去進行式常與過去簡單式合併使用,Lily做研究是一個長時間的背景動作用過去進行式,她朋友來拜訪她是打斷這個背景動作,用過去簡單式。

若讀者想對過去簡單式與過去進行式有進一步了解可點讀"過去簡單式過去進行式不再傻傻分不清楚"這篇文章

Lily had been doing research for half an hour before her friend came to visit her.
在她朋友來拜訪她之前Lily已經做研究做了半小時了,用過去完成進行式表達Lily做研究這動作從七點一直持續到她朋友拜訪她這個時間點,持續了半個小時的事實。

練習題: 請選出正確的動詞型態

1. My best friend, Winnie, has two kids. Whenever she wants to go out with her kids, it usually takes her some time to get ready. I _____for her at the coffee shop for half an hour, but she hasn’t arrived. A) had been waiting B) have been waiting C) waited D) was waiting

2. Judy suddenly realized that her husband was calling her. She didn’t notice because she _________for the last three minutes. A) had been daydreaming B) has been daydreaming C) was daydreaming D) daydreamed

3. Jesse ____a promotion three months ago. He has been working long hours since then. A) gets B) had got C) got D) was getting

4. While I _____ through some English education journals, I found some interesting classroom activities. A) browsed B) have been browsing C) had been browsing D) was browsing

5. I didn’t know much about Korean food. Actually, I ____never ___kimchi until I visited Korea. A) had...eaten B) had...been eating C) was...eating D) have...eaten

6. I was getting worried when you called. I was afraid you ____the wrong bus. A) have taken B) had taken C) had been taking D) have been taking

7. I woke my cats up at 9 P.M. They _________soundly since 5 P.M. A) have slept B) had been sleeping C) have been sleeping D) had slept

8. David is going to give a performance next Saturday. He _______the guitar a lot because he hopes to give a terrific performance. A) had been practicing B) practiced C) has been practicing D) had practiced

9. Sarah put some lotion and ointment on her skin because she _______ in the sun for a long time. A) has been walking B) had walked C) had been walking D) was walking

10. Rose is good at planning ahead. When she found that she _______food, she went to the supermarket. On the other hand, Kevin is not good at planning ahead. He went to the store when he ________food. A) had run out of; was running out of B) was running out of; had run out of

答案:

1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.B 7.B 8.C 9.C 10.B

參考書目:
Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.
Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.

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