過去完成式例句用法解析

過去完成式例句用法解析

提到英文的過去完成式,多數學生的直覺反應就是很困難、很複雜,或是直接背出過去完成式的公式had+P.P.(past participle過去分詞),然後就沒下文了;或者當被問到過去完成式與過去簡單式及現在完成式的差別,很多人是一頭霧水、支支吾吾講不出個所以然來。其實過去完成式的使用情境相當容易理解,如同在現在完成式的文章中提及的,完成式的核心概念是表達在某個時間點之前已經完成某事,「過去完成式」用來表達「過去」的某個時間點之前已經完成的活動,這樣講讀者可能還是不清楚,接下來我將用時間圖解及日常生活實例解析過去完成式的例句與用法,過去完成式主要用於五個情況,包括表達過去兩件事情的先後順序之中先發生的事、持續到過去另一個時間點的狀態、報導式語句、小說情境和假設語氣第三式,本文文末附上過去完成式的基本句型及練習題,帶領大家輕鬆掌握過去完成式的要點。

過去完成式例句與用法

用法一:表達發生於過去兩件事情的先後順序之中先發生的事(“earlier past”)

The train left at 4 o’clock. I got to the station at 4:10.

The train had already left when I got to the train station.

過去完成式例句與用法

昨天四點鐘的時候火車離開,昨天四點十分的時候我抵達火車站,在我抵達火車站時,火車已經離開了。過去完成式應用的情境是在說話的人想表達兩件事情都發生在過去,要表達這兩件事情的「先後順序」,先發生的用過去完成式(had+PP.),後發生的用過去簡單式。在上述例子中,如果只是單單描述過去的某個時間點發生的事都用過去簡單式: The train left at 4 o’clock. I got to the station at 4:10. 但是當我要把這兩個句子串起來來表達這兩件事情的先後順序時,火車已經離開就會用過去完成式來表達,而後我抵達火車站這件事則用過去簡單式來描述The train had already left when I got to the train station.

再看另一個過去完成式例句:

The concert began at 7 o’clock. I was late. I arrived at the theater at 7:10.

The concert had already begun when I arrived at the theater.

過去完成式例句與用法

音樂會七點鐘開始,我七點十分才抵達劇院,在我抵達劇院的時候,音樂會已經開始了,兩件事情都發生在過去,音樂會先開始所以用過去完成式來表達,我抵達劇院是之後發生的事情,用過去簡單式來描述。

用法二: 持續到過去另一個時間點的狀態持續多久了

過去完成式用於表達發生於過去某一時間的事情「持續」到「過去的另一個時間點」狀態或動作持續多久了(常與非動作動詞如be, have, know連用) (其他動作動詞若要表達此情境,則會用過去完成進行式)

My parents knew each other in 1980. They got married in 1983. When my parents got married, they had known each other for 3 years.

過去完成式例句與用法

我的父母在1980年認識彼此,1983年時結婚,兩件事都發生在過去,一前一後,在他們結婚的時候,他們已經認識彼此三年了,用過去完成式表達認識彼此這件事情從1980到1983年已經持續三年的時間。

再看另一個例子:

In June 2017, my cats started to live with each other in the animal shelter. I adopted my cats in January 2018. When I adopted my two cats, they had been with each other for 7 months.

過去完成式例句與用法

我的兩隻貓咪在2017年6月開始在動物收容所一起生活,2018一月時我領養他們,兩件事都發生在過去,一前一後,在我領養我的兩隻貓咪時,他們已經一起生活了七個月了,用過去完成式表達我的貓咪已經一起生活這件事情的狀態持續七個月。

用法三:報導式語句

如果轉述意見的動詞(如: think, tell, say, discover, find out, learn, wonder)是使用過去式,且原本情境說的話使用過去簡單式、現在完成式或過去完成式,則轉述的語句常使用過去完成式來表示該事情發生於轉述時間點之前。

原本情境說的話與它的時態 報導式轉述語句
過去簡單式 I lost my credit card. Anna said that she had lost her credit card.
Who left the window open? I wondered who had left the window open.
現在完成式 I have lost my credit card. Anna said that she had lost her credit card.
I have cleaned my room. I told my Mom that I had cleaned my room.
過去完成式 I had lost my credit card. Anna said that she had lost her credit card.
I had sent the package. I thought I had sent the package.

*更多關於報導式語句的時態應用將於名詞子句的文章中做完整的說明

用法四: 小說情境

小說作者通常用過去簡單式來描述故事中發生的事情,並用過去完成式來描述在那些事件「之前」發生的事,以下將以J.K. Rowling 哈利波特神秘的魔法石中的一小段來做舉例:

The Dursleys had everything they wanted, but they also had a secret, and their greatest fear was that somebody would discover it. They didn’t think they could bear it if anyone found out about the Potters. Mrs. Potter was Mrs. Dursley’s sister, but they hadn’t met for several years….The Dursley knew that the Potters had a small son, too, but they had never even seen him. (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone P1-2)

讀者可發現羅琳在描述「Mrs.Potter是Mrs. Dursley的姊妹」及「The Dursley知道Potters有個小兒子」,這些都是使用過去簡單式,但羅琳要描述「他們好幾年沒碰面了」及「他們從未見過這個小兒子」這兩句話都是在這些事實「之前」發生的事情,所以是用過去完成式來描述。

用法五: 假設語氣第三式

在假設語氣中,如果想要表達與過去相反的事實,用過去完成式

例一:

原本的事實:

我昨天沒有足夠的時間,我昨天沒有打掃房間

I didn’t have enough time yesterday.

I didn’t clean my room yesterday.

假設語氣的句子:

假如我昨天有足夠的時間,我就會打掃房間,這與過去的事實相反,If 子句,用had+P.P; 結果句用would have +P.P.

If I had had enough time, I would have cleaned my room yesterday.

例二:

原本的事實:

Jan 上周末沒有來參加我的生日宴會

Jan didn’t come to my birthday party last weekend.

假設語氣的句子:

我希望Jan 那時有來參加我的生日宴會

I wish Jan had come to my birthday party. 表達與過去相反的事實,wish子句使用過去完成式

*更多關於假設語氣的用法將於假設語氣的文章中做完整的說明

過去完成式基本句型

過去完成式基本句型

過去完成式公式

Had + Past Participle 過去分詞

先發生的—用過去完成式

後發生的—用簡單過去式

I had already left for the airport by the time my friend came.

在我朋友來之前,我已經前往機場

完整句子 縮寫法
肯定句 I had read the novel. I’d read the novel.
否定句 I had not read the novel. I hadn’t read the novel.
疑問句 Had you read the novel?
yes-no問句 Had you not read the novel? Hadn’t you read the novel?
wh問句 What had you done before you went to work yesterday morning?

過去完成式練習題

依照情境填入過去完成式或過去簡單式正確的動詞型態

1. I was very tired last night, but I _________(feel) better after I _____(get) more sleep.

2. I was late for the conference. When I ______(arrive), it (begin, already)_______________.

3. It was pretty hot and humid when I (wake up)_________ this morning. The relative humidity ____(be) about 80 percent. Therefore, I _________(turn on) the air conditioner.

4. I _______(buy) some delicious chocolate cakes last night and _____(put) them into the refrigerator. I ______(be) so busy that I _________(not have) a chance to eat them. When I went to the refrigerator, someone ___________(eat, already) them.

5. I am sorry that I missed the appointment. I ____________(memorize) the wrong date.

6. I wanted to come to your birthday party, but I _______(already, promise) to help my professor arrange the exhibition.

7. Last week at the botanical garden, I _______(meet) Eugene, my English teacher. I ______(not, talk) to him for several years. At first, I _______(not, recognize) him because he __________(put on) a lot of weight.

8. When it was my turn to pay the bill, I found that someone ________ (steal) my wallet. I ______(feel) so angry and shocked that I didn’t know what to do. My friend helped me call the police and generously ________(offer) to pay the bill for me.

9. It was raining hard, but by the time the lecture ________(be) over, the rain ______(stop).

10. I (read, never) ___________any of William Blake’s poems before I ______(take) this class.

答案:

1.felt, got/ had got

2. arrived, had already begun

3. woke up, was, turned on

4. bought, put, was, didn’t have, had already eaten

5. had memorized

6. had already promised

7. met, hadn’t talked, didn’t recognize, had put on

8. had stolen, felt, offered

9. was, had stopped

10. had never read, took

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2017

Azar, Betty Schramfer. Fundamentals of English Grammar. 4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2011

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. New York : Arthur A. Levine

Books, 1998. Print.

柯旗化。New English Grammar新英文法。高雄市: 第一出版社。

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