because, because of 用法輕鬆學

because, because of 用法輕鬆學

because, because of 都翻譯成「因為」常使用於日常生活對話中,但很多同學沒有注意到because, because of 用法的不同,造句表達時常常犯錯,because, because of 用法用一句話概括就是because 接子句,because of 接名詞,本文將詳細舉例說明兩者之間用法的差異,並列舉大家用because, because 造句時常犯的寫作錯誤,並補充如: therefore, so, since, now that, 這些表達因果關係詞語的正確用法,更附上文法及多益版的練習題讓你一次搞懂because, because of 及其相關字的用法。

because, because of 用法哪裡不同?

because, because of 都翻譯成「因為」但用法到底差在哪裡呢? 簡單的來說:

because + 子句

because of + 名詞

because of +名詞,這個大家可能比較好理解,但because+子句,子句是什麼東西呢? 「子句」 是一組有主詞和有動詞的字群,我們來看一個例子:

A: Hi Jenny, did you go to the beach on the weekend? 嗨Jenny周末你有去海灘玩嗎?

B: No, we didn’t. We didn’t go to the beach because the weather was bad. 沒有, 我們沒有去海灘玩因為天氣很糟。

Because 的用法是:

We didn’t go to the beach(主要子句) because the weather was bad(副詞子句) .

你也可以說:

Because the weather was bad(副詞子句), we didn’t go to the beach(主要子句) .

“the weather was bad”是一個有主詞有動詞的字群(the weather 是主詞was是動詞),也就是「子句」,整句Because the weather was bad在文法術語上被稱為「副詞子句」,副詞子句是沒有辦法自己獨立存在的,是一個不完整的句子,因為句子的文意不完整。想像一下如果你只說"因為天氣很糟” 然後呢? 整句話並沒有說完,換言之,副詞子句必須與「主要子句」"we didn’t go to the beach” 連用句意才會完整,主要子句是可以自己獨立存在的、完整的句子。

在寫句子時大家也要注意標點符號的問題,當副詞子句放在句首時會打逗號與主要子句隔開,如果是放在後面則不用:

Because the weather was bad, we didn’t go to the beach . (打逗號)

We didn’t go to the beach because the weather was bad .(沒有逗號)

Because of 的用法是:

Because of the bad weather(名詞),we didn’t go to the beach. (打逗號)

We didn’t go to the beach because of the bad weather(名詞).(沒有逗號)

Because of 是一個介係詞片語,後面只能接名詞 (the bad weather),當Because of 放在句首時會打逗號與主要子句隔開,如果是放在後面則不用。

下面有幾個關於because, because of用法的例句,你來判定看看哪些句子是正確的呢?

1.Because he was hungry, he ate a lot of food.
2.He ate a lot of food because he was hungry.
3.Because of he was hungry, he ate a lot of food.
4.We canceled the trip because of the typhoon.
5.We canceled the trip because the typhoon.
6.Because of the typhoon, we canceled the trip.
7.Because the typhoon was coming we canceled the trip.
8.We canceled the trip because the typhoon was coming.

正確的句子有: 1, 2, 4, 6, 8

3不對 因為he was hungry是個子句,而because of只能接名詞

5不對 因為the typhoon 是名詞,應該要將because改成because of

7不對 因為少了逗號,正確句子要寫Because the typhoon was coming, we canceled the trip.

because, because of 常見錯誤用法

1. because 錯誤用法一: Because 和so 連用於同一個句子

除了上述提到的打逗號的問題,because, because of 常見錯誤用法包括把because 與so 連用,中文上我們會使用「因為...所以...」的句子去做表述,例如: 因為天氣很糟所以我們沒有去海灘玩,但是在英文上because 或so 只能選其一去做表達喔!

錯誤的句子:

Because the weather was bad, so we didn’t go to the beach.

正確的句子:

Because the weather was bad, we didn’t go to the beach.
We didn’t go to the beach because the weather was bad.
Because of the bad weather, we didn’t go to the beach.
We didn’t go to the beach because of the bad weather.
The weather was bad, so we didn’t go to the beach.

*那關於so這個字的用法是:
so可以作為一個連接詞用來表達因果關係,書寫時用so連接兩個獨立的句子,兩個句子之間會用逗號隔開。我們再看兩個例句:

My roommate was studying, so I turned down the music.
我的室友在念書,所以我把音樂轉小聲

The weather was hot, so I turned on the fan.
天氣很熱,所以我打開風扇

2. because 錯誤用法二: 寫作時單獨用because 於一個句子中

A: Why did you drink so much water?
你為什麼喝那麼多水?

B: Because I was very thirsty. I went jogging for an hour.
因為我很渴, 我慢跑了一小時。

日常生活對話中,可以用because 所引導的副詞子句來回答問題。但是如果是在寫作中,Because I was very thirsty 則不能自己單獨存在,副詞子句必須與主要子句連用才是正確的寫法喔:

錯誤的句子: I drank a lot of water. Because I was very thirsty.

正確的句子: I drank a lot of water because I was very thirsty.

because, because of 用法練習題

Because用法練習1: 用because 連接兩個句子

1.The meeting was postponed. The boss was sick.

2. Jerry felt tired. He stayed up late.

3. Eric wanted to lose weight. He exercised two hours a day.

答案:

1.The meeting was postponed because the boss was sick.
Because the boss was sick, the meeting was postponed.

2. Jerry felt tired because he stayed up late.
Because Jerry stayed up late, he felt tired.

3. Because Eric wanted to lose weight, he exercised two hours a day.
Eric exercised two hours a day because he wanted to lose weight.

Because用法練習2: 將下列句子用because 或 so 改寫一次

1. Mary got fired because she was always late for work.

2. I closed the windows because it was cold.

3. I didn’t go to the library because it was raining.

4. Jan was tired, so she took a nap.

5. Jeffery was thirsty, so he drank a cup of black tea.

6. Rose has three cats, so she is very busy.

答案:

1. Mary was always late for work, so she got fired.
2. It was cold, so I closed the windows.
3. It was raining, so I didn’t go to the library.
4. Because Jan was tired, she took a nap. / Jan took a nap because she was tired.
5. Because Jeffery was thirsty, he drank a cup of black tea. / Jeffery drank a cup of black tea because he was thirsty.
6. Because Rose has three cats, she is very busy. / Rose is very busy because she has three cats.

Because 用法練習3: 判定句子並填入because 或because of

1.Jessica failed the exam ________she didn’t study hard.
2. __________ heavy fog at the airport , we had to wait for two hours.
3. Susan stayed indoors __________the weather was bad.
4. __________I didn’t wear a coat, I got sick.
5. _________the cold weather, she put on a coat.
6. I’m not going to make it to the meeting on time _________the heavy traffic.
7. We can’t go to the library tomorrow _________it isn’t open on Mondays.
8. Meg couldn’t take part in the competition _______her broken arm.
9.________the elevator was temporarily out of service, every employee had to walk up the stairs.
10. Joe’s eyes are red __________ he has been crying.

答案:

1. because 2. Because of 3. because 4. Because 5. Because of
6. because of 7. because 8. because of 9. Because 10. because

because, because of 同義字相關用法

because, because of 同義字相關用法

除了because, because of, so之外,表達因果關係常用的字詞還有 since, now that, therefore, due to, 那這些詞倒底怎麼用呢?

這些字詞依據詞性可以分成四大類:
1. 副詞子句的用法: because, since, now that
2. 連結詞的用法: so
3. 轉折詞的用法: therefore, consequently
4. 介係詞的用法: because of, due to

1. 副詞子句的用法:because, since, now that

now that和since也有"因為"的意思,用法與because相同,但文意上有一點點不同:

now that的文意是: because now(因為現在)
since的文意是: because it is a fact that (強調 "因為這個事實" 而導致某個結果,看上下文會翻成 "因為”或"既然")

Now that Winnie has finished her homework, she is going to watch a movie.
因為現在Winnie已經做完她的功課了,她將要看部電影。

Now that he is retired, he goes hiking almost every day.
因為現在他退休了, 他幾乎每天都去健行。

Since you are good at negotiating and I’m not, you should talk to the supervisor.
既然你擅長協商而我不擅長,你應該去跟主管溝通。

Since we don’t have to go to work tomorrow, why don’t we go to the movies?
既然明天我們不用去上班,要不要去看電影呢?

小提醒: *since 除了可以當"因為"來用, 有"自從"的意思 (劍橋字典的定義是:from a particular time in the past until a later time, or until now) 例句如下:

Since I came to the United States, I have made a lot of new friends.
自從我來到美國,我交了很多新朋友。

Tom has lived in Taiwan since 2000.
Tom從2000年就一直住在台灣。

練習題: 判定下列since的意思 到底是"因為/既然" 還是"自從"


1. I have been online since 9 o’clock.
2. Since the student didn’t give the correct answer, the teacher decided to ask another question.
3. I have known my best friend since I was a child.
4. I’ve had my cell phone since 2022.
5. Since you bought me lunch last time, let me pay for our dinner.

答案: 1.自從 2. 因為/既然 3. 自從 4. 自從 5. 因為/既然

2. 連結詞的用法: so

so 的用法在前面說過了,這邊在簡短複述一次: so可作為表達因果關係的連接詞,書寫時用so連接兩個獨立的句子,兩個句子之間會用逗號隔開,口語及書寫上都常使用到:

The weather was bad, so we didn’t go to the beach.

3. 轉折詞的用法: therefore, consequently, thus

轉折詞的用法,要注意的就是標點符號的部分,請看下列例句:

The weather was bad. Therefore, we didn’t go to the beach.
The weather was bad; therefore, we didn’t go to the beach.

會先寫出一個完整的句子,然後打上句點或分號 (英文的分號有類似句點的功能),如果使用句點,Therefore要得第一個字母要大寫,若使用分號則使用小寫就可以了,然後再寫上therefore後打一個逗號,並帶出結果句。轉折詞是可移動的,也可以寫成如下兩句的型態:

The weather was bad. We, therefore, didn’t go to the beach.
The weather was bad. We didn’t go to the beach, therefore .

轉折詞比較常使用於正式寫作上,口語上比較少用,consequently和thus與therefore的用法相同 。

4. 介係詞的用法: because of, due to

due to和because of一樣都是介係詞片語, 後面只能接名詞
Because of the bad weather, we didn’t go to the beach.
=We didn’t go to the beach because of the bad weather.
=Due to the bad weather, we didn’t go to the beach.
= We didn’t go to the beach due to the bad weather.

because, because of 同義字用法練習題1: 填入Because of, Because, Therefore,或 so

1.Jessica studied hard, ________she passed the exam.
2. Jessica studied hard. ________, she passed the exam.
3. _______Jessica studied hard, she passed the exam.
4. Gina stayed indoors ______the bad weather.
5. The weather was bad, _____Gina stayed indoors.
6. The weather was bad. ______, Gina stayed indoors.
7. I put on my scarf _____the strong wind.
8. The wind was strong. ______, I put on my scarf.
9.The wind was strong, ____ I put on my scarf.
10. ______the wind was strong, I put on my scarf.

答案:

1.so 2. Therefore 3. Because 4. because of 5. so
6. Therefore 7. because of 8. Therefore 9. so 10. Because

because, because of 同義字用法練習題2: 用Therefore, so, because of 改寫下列句子

1. Because the traffic was heavy, we were late for the meeting.
1)
2)
3)

2. Because the rain was heavy, we didn’t go jogging.
1)
2)
3)

答案:

1.The traffic was heavy. Therefore, we were late for the meeting.
The traffic was heavy, so we were late for the meeting.
Because of the heavy traffic, we were late for the meeting.

2. The rain was heavy. Therefore, we didn’t go jogging.
The rain was heavy, so we didn’t go jogging.
Because of the heavy rain, we didn’t go jogging.

because, because of 用法多益試題練習與解析

以下題目出自Longman Preparation series for the TOEIC Test, Advanced Course.(P125-128)

1._________she possesses such business acumen, she was able to regain control of the company. A) After B) Because C) Even though D) Until

2._______the research uncovered some problems, the committee members decided to table the proposal temporarily. A) Since B) Even though C) Until D) Unless

3. Our shoe sales have increased recently; ______, we are optimistic about future growth in the footwear department. A) however B) thus C) nevertheless D) also

4. The woman who volunteered her services in Africa and Asia had the most hands-on experience; _______, she was hired. A) nevertheless B) furthermore C) however D) therefore

5. Our banking clients want flexibility; ________, we provide ATMs (automated teller machines) for 24-hour use. A) moreover B) however C) consequently D) furthermore

答案: 1.B 2. A 3.B 4. D 5. C

結語

because, because of 及其他因果關係字詞so, since, therefore, 常使用於日常生活對話中,希望讀者在閱讀本篇文章及做完練習題後,能精準的使用這些字詞去表達意見,並在英文寫作上及多益考試中能更上一層樓,以下簡述because, because of 用法的重點: because 接子句,because of 接名詞, since有自從和因為的意思,必須看上下文判斷文意,so可以當連接詞連接兩個獨立的句子,記得兩個句子之間要打逗號,口語及寫作都常使用,therefore, consequently, thus是轉折詞,多用於正式寫作上,轉折詞擺放的位置有好幾個,使用時要注意標點符號的用法。

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2017

Azar, Betty Schramfer. Fundamentals of English Grammar. 4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2011

Lougheed, Lin. Longman Preparation series for the TOEIC Test, Advanced Course. 6th ed. Hoboken: Pearson Education, 2018.

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