this that these those用法與練習詳解

this that these those用法與練習詳解

this that these those 用法照順序中文翻譯成「這個、那個、這些、那些」這些字是台灣學生剛開始學英文就會接觸到的字,看似簡單但是你真的用對了嗎? this that these those只能跟名詞連用嗎? 除了用在表達實際距離的遠近之外有其他用法嗎?this that these those用法到底是要跟可數名詞還是不可數名詞連用? 在商店買東西、介紹別人或電話用語中等等情境這些字又是怎麼被使用的呢? 本文以簡單的例句搭配練習題詳細解說this that these those 常運用於日常生活中的基本用法,希望替初學者的解惑。

this that these those用法的發音

注意一下這幾個字的發音,this的母音是短母音的/I/結尾是無聲的/s/, these是發常母音的/i/結尾是有聲的/z/, that的母音是短母音大嘴巴的/æ/, those的發音是發圓圓的/o/結尾是有聲的/z/

this that these those用法與名詞連用

1. 時間與空間上的用法:

在開始講規則之前我們先來看幾個例句:

This box is brown. 這個箱子是棕色的

That pen is red. 那支筆是紅色的

This information is important. 這則資訊很重要

That piece of advice is useful. 那則建議很實用

These pillows are green. 這些枕頭是綠色的

Those hats are blue. 那些帽子是藍色的

從上述的例句你應該可以歸納出 this that是單數的可數名詞及不可數名詞連用,these those是與複數的名詞連用,this these 通常用來指比較靠自己的人事物,that those用來指比較的人事物,除了表達實體的距離,this that these those 也可以用來表達時間上的距離,this these可以表達正在進行或即將要開始的事件,that those表達剛做完或過去發生的事情,我們來看幾個例句:

1.我在書店手上拿著一本小說正在讀對我朋友說:

This is a good novel. I will buy it. 這是本很棒的小說,我要買它

2. 我們正在聽一首英文歌,我對我朋友說:

I like this English song. Who wrote this? 我喜歡這首英文歌,誰寫的

3.魔術師即將表演一個魔術,對觀眾說: Watch this.

watch this. 代表這是即將要開始的事情

4. 我朋友對我說: Have you ever read this short story? 你有讀過這篇短篇故事嗎?

我說: Yes, that was a good story. 有,那是個很棒的故事

That was a good story. 代表這個故事是我過去讀過的

5. 有人說大學畢業後應該繼續念研究

我問: Who said that? 誰說的? I went to work first after I graduated. 我畢業後先去工作。Who said that?這是某人在過去的時間說的

*另外that也拿來表示已經結束的某事,我們來看一個對話:

Teacher: Could you tell me about yourself? 你可以自我介紹嗎 What do you like to do in your free time? 你休閒時間喜歡做什麼?

Amy: I like to read books. 我喜歡讀書

Teacher: What kinds of books do you like to read? 你喜歡讀哪一種書?

Amy: I like to read romantic novels and some self-help books.我喜歡讀愛情小說和勵志書籍

Teacher: Anything else? 還有嗎?

Amy: No, that’s all. 沒有了就這樣

That’s all. 來表達沒有其他了,剛講的就是全部

練習題: 選出正確的字填入

1.(This, These) ______ coat is white.

(That, Those)______shirt is black.

2.(This, These) _________books are good.

(That, Those) _________ chair is new.

3. (This, These) _________glasses are mine.

(That, Those) _________sunglasses are yours.

4. (This, These) __________rulers are yellow.

(That, Those) __________purse is red.

5. (This, These )________information is new.

(That, Those) _________advice is helpful.

6. (This, These) ________ birds can fly.

(That, Those) ________ dog can’t fly.

7. My brother and I are watching a movie now. I say, “____(This, That) is a good movie. Don’t you think so?”

8. A waitress is taking an order. She says to her customers, “Would you like a piece of chocolate?” The customers say, “No, ____’s all.” (this, that)

9. I am going to tell my family some good news. I say, “Listen to ____.” (this, that)

10. Have you ever found _____(this, that) picture book you used to read?

答案:

1. This, That 2. These, That 3. These, Those 4. These, That

5. This, That 6. These, That 7. This 8. that 9. this 10. that

*this 也常和時間的字詞如: morning, afternoon, evening, week, weekend, month, year 連用,當我們講 this morning, this afternoon, this evening, this week, this weekend, this month, this year 表達的時間點可能是「過去、現在、未來」,端看說話者想表達的情境是什麼,例如:

現在是下午三點鐘,我的貓咪們正房間睡覺,我說今天下午我的貓咪們在睡覺,用現在式表達

My cats are sleeping this afternoon.

現在是下午三點鐘,下午一點鐘的時候我的貓咪們吃了點心,我說下午的時候我的貓咪吃了點心,用過去式表達

My cat ate some snacks this afternoon.

現在是下午三點鐘,下午四點的時候我預定要去上班,我跟我朋友說我下午的時候要去上班,用未來式表達

I am going to work this afternoon.

眼尖的讀者應該有發現這個概念我們在"未來簡單式入門文法-未來簡單式的多元樣貌,看完秒懂"這篇文章有提過喔!

2. 情緒上的用法:

this that these those 也可用在情緒的表達上,我們用this these 來表達我們喜歡、同意、感興趣的東西,that those 則用來表達情感上比較疏離負向的感覺或不喜歡、拒絕,例如:

I like this dress you bought. It’s very beautiful.
我喜歡你買的這件洋裝,它很美

These stories are so interesting. I want to read them again.
這些故事很有趣我還想再讀一次

I don’t like that dress. It’s ugly.
我不喜歡那件洋裝,看起來很醜

I don’t like that guy. He is so mean to everybody.
我不喜歡那個傢伙,他對每個人都很刻薄

Those photos taken by John are awful. John
拍的那些照片糟透了

練習題: 選出正確的字填入

1. I don’t like _____(this, that) new coworker. She is impolite.

2. I love ________(these, those) slippers you bought. They are so cute.

3. __________(these, those) reports written by Chad were terrible.

4. I like ____(this, that) new chicken dish cooked by Mom. It’s very delicious.

5. ________(these, those) boots are useless and ugly.

答案:

1. that 2. these 3. Those 4. this 5. Those

3. 共同知道的資訊或新資訊:

有時候當我們在解釋一件事情或敘說一個故事時,我們會用that而非the來表達我們與聽者都知道的資訊,例如:

Do you know that empty lot near the library? I think they are going to build a shopping mall there.

你知道圖書館附近的那塊空地吧, 他們將要在那蓋一間購物商場

如果我們要講一件最近才發生或重要的事情,或在講故事中介紹一個新東西或新人物,我們也可以用this來取代a/an,例如:

This old lady walked toward me and asked if I needed help.

一位老太太走向我並問我是否需要幫助

The magician suddenly took out this big hat from his box and put it on the table.

魔術師突然從他的箱子拿出一頂大帽子,然後把它放在桌上

this that these those當代名詞用

this that these those當代名詞用法

this that these those除了與名詞連用也可以當代名詞用,當代名詞時可以用來指東西、想法,通常是聽者清楚知道我們在講的事物或想法是什麼,我們一起來看幾個例句:

1.代指物品或想法

情境一: 我指著貓貓或狗狗:

This is a dog. 這是一隻狗

That is a cat. 那是一隻貓

These are my dogs. 這些是我的狗

Those are your cats. 那些是你的貓

情境二: 我準備替我的長輩們買禮物,在商場裡我指著兩樣東西問我的弟弟

我指著一個咖啡杯(pointing to a cup)

What do you think of this for our father? 你覺得買這個給老爸如何?

我指著一雙手套(pointing to a pair of gloves)

What do you think of these for our mother? 你覺得買這些給老媽如何?

然後我指著某件放在架子上層的一件背心(pointing to a vest)對店員說:

Can I see that? 我可以看那個嗎?

我指著幾件牛仔褲(pointing to jeans)對店員說:

Can I see those? 我可以看那些嗎?

(如果你在國外想要買東西,但不知道那個東西的單字說,也可以指著物品並用上述的句型問店員喔^^)

情境三: 主管對底下的員工說

主管: You need to submit the project on time. The deadline is March 15th. Are you ok with that?

你必須要準時繳交專案,期限是3/15,你可以嗎? (*that這邊代指3/15前要繳交專案這件事)

員工: So I only have three days to work on it? 所以我只有三天可以做

主管: That’s right. 沒錯 (*that這邊只員工剛說過的那句話)

情境四: 媽媽對小孩子們說

Lucy said to her kids, “We are going to an amusement park and then have a big meal at a steakhouse this weekend. Are you happy with that?”

露西對孩子們說: 這個周末我們將要去遊樂園玩然後去牛排館吃飯,你們開心嗎? (*that代表的是去遊樂園玩然後去牛排館吃飯的這個想法)

2.介紹人和電話用語

this that these those當代名詞時,也可以用來介紹人是誰或用在電話用語中,例如:

情境一: 我的外國朋友Marianne來我家一起過新年,她第一次見到我的家人,我對Marianne說:

Marianne, this is my mother, Lily. This is my father, Sam. This is my younger brother, Jeffery.

瑪麗安,這是我的媽媽,莉莉;這是我的爸爸,山姆,這是我弟弟,傑佛瑞

Marianne指著躲在柱子後面的橘貓問我說:

Is that your cat? 那是你的貓嗎?

 

情境二: 我第一天到新學校上課,我不認識所有的老師,我指著一位推著一車子書籍站在走廊上的女士,問旁邊的同學說:

I said, “Who is that?” 那是誰?

My classmate answered, “That’s Professor Alleen. She teaches children’s literature.” 那是艾琳教授,她教兒童文學

情境三: 電話用語

我打電話給我的好朋友Winnie

Winne: Hello? 哈囉

Rose: Hi, is that Winne? This is Rose. 嗨!是維妮嗎? 我是羅絲

Winne: Hi Rose! How are you doing? 嗨!羅絲你最近好嗎?

Rose: Great!很好

在電話用語中,要講自己是誰,英文會說this is XXX. 要確認對方是誰時,在非正式場合中會說Is that XXX? 小提醒:電話用語中如果你是打給你很熟悉的人通常會說It’s me. 不能講This is me.

this that these those其他用法

1. that, those代替前面提過的名詞

在正式文體中that和those可以來代替 the one(s)的語意,也常用於比較級的句子中,例如:

The best chapter is that written at the beginning of the book.

最好的章節是寫在書的開頭的那一章

*這邊that代指的是the chapter,這樣的句子要比The best chapter is the one written at the beginning of the book.要更正式

The most interesting activities used in the classroom are those selected from Dr. Alleen’s books.

那些應用在課堂上最有趣的活動是從Dr. Alleen的書精選出來的

*這邊those代指the activities,上述的句子比The most interesting activities used in the classroom are the ones selected from Dr. Alleen’s books. 要更正式

比較級的例子: that替代前面提過單數的名詞,those替代提過的複數名詞

The climate of Taiwan is different from that of Japan.

台灣的氣候與日本的氣候很不一樣

*原本的句子是The climate of Taiwan is different from the climate of Japan. 但第二次提the climate我們在這樣的句子中會用that 來表示the climate. 注意the climate是單數所以用that來代替,如果比較的東西是複數就會寫成those. 另外很多學生常常會寫出The climate of Taiwan is different Japan. 這樣錯誤的句子,這邊不能這樣寫是因為比較的東西要對等,你是拿台灣的氣候與日本的氣候做比較而不是拿台灣的氣候和日本這國家做比較,這邊在比較級的文章會再詳細說明。我們來看下個例句:

The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a cat.

兔子的耳朵比貓咪的耳朵要長

*原本的句子是The ears of a rabbit are longer than the ears of a cat. 但是第二次提the ears 我們可以用those來代替

2. Those當代名詞用在形容詞子句中

*those who這邊代表the people who

I admire those who never stop learning.

我崇拜那些永遠不停止學習的人們

Those who look on the bright side can stay mentally healthy.

那些看到光明面的人們能夠維持良好的心理健康

3. this that當作 so 來用

在非正式場合中有時候我們也會拿this that 來表示so如此...的意思,但是正式的英文還是用so比較好喔

When Mary chose to study in New York, she didn’t know it was going to be this cold in winter.

當瑪莉選擇去紐約讀書時,她不知道紐約的冬天是如此的冷

If his English is that good, why does he hire an interpreter?

如果他的英文那麼好的話,為什麼還要雇用翻譯?

練習題: 填入適當的字(this, that, these, those)

1. Sarah called her friend. She said, “Hi, ____is Sarah. May I speak to Mr. Anderson?”

2. I called my coworker. “Hello, is _____ Robert? This is Rose.”

3. I went to a gift shop. I pointed to a mug on the top of a shelf and said to the clerk, “Could I see ____?” Then, I took some postcards and asked my friend, “What do you think of ________for our teacher? “

4. On the first day of work, my supervisor introduced my coworkers to me, “Rose, ________is Brian, our editor-in-chief. ______is Susan, our accountant. ______is Michelle, our secretary.”

5. Margaret went to a party. She saw a handsome guy and asked her friend, “Who is ______?”

6. The students were divided into two groups. _____who were interested in languages were assigned to Project A. _____who were good at numbers were assigned to Project B.

7. The tail of a cat is longer than ____of a rabbit.

8. The books in this section are much more interesting than _______ in that section.

答案:

1. this 2. that 3. that, these 4. this, This, This 5. that

6. Those, Those 7. that 8. those

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.

劍橋線上字典 當代英語文法

British Council LearnEnglish Teens

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