現在簡單式入門文法-用法句子結構大解密

現在簡單式入門文法-用法句子結構大解密

現在簡單式

現在簡單式通常是英文初學者首先學習的時態,然而對於很多英文初學者來說,對於動詞在某些情況下要做變化,或者在現在簡單式中到底什麼時候要用don’t時麼時候要用doesn’t往往感到很困惑,例如想表達「我不喜歡你」很多學生就會直接說I not like you. 而非正確的說法I don’t like you. 或著想表達他每天七點起床,直接就說He get up at 7 every day. 而不是He gets up at 7 every day. 本文首先說明英文12時態中的現在簡單式使用情境,並針對初學者常感到疑惑的句型規則逐一列表說明,並附上練習題,希望可以幫助到更多英文初學者釐清基本句子結構,用簡單且正確的文法說出一個句子。

現在簡單式例句及使用情境

解釋現在簡單,事情發生過去現在未來都是一樣的
使用情境 例句及解釋
1.不變的真理 The sun rises in the East.
太陽從東邊升起。

*太陽過去、現在、未來都從東邊升起、永遠都不會改變。

2.現在的事實或狀態 I am a student. 我現在是一個學生
I live in Taiwan. 我現在住在台灣
3.周而復始的習慣動作 I go to work every day. 我每天都去工作
I do yoga every Tuesday.每週二我都做瑜珈

現在簡單式句型:

很多英文初學者在一開始學習英文時,在造句時最常犯的錯誤就是Be動詞和一般動詞的句構搞不清楚,或者搞不清什麼時候動詞要加S,don’t doesn’t 要怎麼用,常常寫出下列的句子:

想表達意思 錯誤的句子 正確句子
我不喜歡蘋果 I am not like apples. I don’t like apples.
我不快樂 I don’t happy. I am not happy.
他喜歡香蕉 He like bananas. He likes bananas.
他不喜歡蔬菜 He not like vegetables. He doesn’t like vegetables.

一般來說動詞可以分為兩大類:

第一類是Be 動詞,在現在簡單式的句子中就是大家熟悉的is, am, are

人稱
第一人稱單數
第一人稱複數
I 我
We我們
am here.
are here.
第二人稱 You你/你們 are here.
第三人稱單數 He 他
She她
It 它
is here.
第三人稱複數 They 他們 are here.

第二類是一般動詞,如: eat, drink, walk, run等等

I

We

You

They

eat apples every day.

He

She

It

eats apples every day.
現在簡單式注意事項
  • 建議初學者在看句子時一定要
  • 1.先區辨句子的動詞到底是一般動詞還是Be 動詞
  • 2.看主詞是誰(第幾人稱?是單數還是複數?)
  • 3.再看想表達的句意是肯定句、否定句、yes/no問句還是wh-問句

現在簡單式Be動詞的句型變化

1.寫否定句時,在Be動詞後面放not

EX: He is here. -> He is not here.

2.寫yes/no問句時,把Be動詞往前挪到句首

EX: He is here. -> Is he here?

人稱 肯定句 否定句 Yes/No問句
第一人稱單數
第一人稱複數
I 我
We我們
am here.
are here.
I am not here.
We are not here.
Am I here?
Are we here?
第二人稱 You你/你們 are here. You are not here. Are you here?
第三人稱單數 He 他
She她
It 它
is here. He is not here.
She is not here.
It is not here.
Is he here?
Is she here?
Is it here?
第三人稱複數 They 他們 are here. They are not here. Are they here?

練習: 將下列句子改成否定句及yes/no問句

1. She is late.

2. They are happy.

3. I am ready.

答案:

1. She is not late. Is she late?

2. They are not happy. Are they happy?

3. I am not ready. Am I ready?

3. Be動詞縮寫寫法

肯定句 肯定句縮寫寫法 否定句 否定句縮寫寫法
I am here.
We are here.
I'm here.
We’re here.
I am not here.
We are not here.
I'm not here.
We’re not here.
We aren’t here.
You are here. You’re here. You are not here. You’re not here.
You aren’t here.
He is here.
She is here.
It is here.
He’s here.
She’s here.
It’s here.
He is not here.
She is not here.
It is not here.
He’s not here.
He isn’t here.
She’s not here.
She isn’t here.
It’s not here.
It isn’t here.
They are here. They’re here. They are not here. They’re not here.
They aren’t here.

練習: 將下列句子改成縮寫的寫法

1. It is hot.

2. I am late.

3. We are students.

4. They are not teachers.

5. He is not angry.

答案:

1. It’s hot.

2. I’m late.

3. We’re students.

4. They’re not teachers. /They aren’t teachers.

5. He isn’t angry. /He’s not angry.

現在簡單式一般動詞的句型變化

現在簡單式一般動詞的句型變化

1.現在簡單式一般動詞肯定句中,第三人稱單數(He, she, it)的動詞必須做出變化,通常是加S

I
We
You
They
eat apples every day.
He
She
It
eats apples every day.

一般動詞加S的特殊變化如下表:

例子
字尾是sh, ch, ss, x -> 加es brush-> brushes
catch-> catches
kiss-> kisses
fix-> fixes
子音加y -> 去y加ies try-> tries
fly-> flies
母音加y -> 直接加s pay-> pays
say-> says
不規則變化 have-> has
go-> goes
do-> does

練習: 放入正確的動詞型態

1. May __________(brush) her hair every day.

2. John usually _________(watch) TV every evening.

3. Jessica _________(walk) to school every morning.

4. He ________(study) hard.

5. My best friend ________(play) the piano.

6. Rita _______(do) her homework.

7. My mother _______(have) a cat.

8. Robert ________(go) to school.

答案:

1. brushes

2. watches

3. walks

4. studies

5. plays

6. does

7. has

8. goes

2.現在簡單式一般動詞否定句,需要加入助動詞(do not 或does not),該句的一般動詞必須還原為原型動詞(所謂原型動詞就是動詞原本的樣子)

肯定句 否定句
I
We
You
They
eat apples every day. I do not eat apples every day.
We do not eat apples every day.
You do not eat apples every day.
They do not eat apples every day.

縮寫: I don’t eat apples every day.

He
She
It
eats apples every day. He does not eat apples every day.
She does not eat apples every day.
It does not eat apples every day.

第三人稱單數否定句都是加does not,並注意eat在否定句中就不能再寫eats,而是要還原eat

縮寫: He doesn’t eat apples every day.

3.現在簡單式一般動詞yes/no問句,需要在句子開頭加入助動詞(do 或does),該句的一般動詞必須還原為原型動詞

肯定句 yes/no問句
I
We
You
They
eat apples every day. Do I eat apples every day?
Do we eat apples every day?
Do you eat apples every day?
Do they eat apples every day?
He
She
It
eats apples every day. Does he eat apples every day?
Does she eat apples every day?
Does it eat apples every day?

第三人稱單數yes/no問句都是加does ,並注意eat在問句中就不能再寫eats,而是要還原eat

練習: 將下列句子改為否定句及yes/no問句

1.You have a TV.

2. She likes coffee.

3. They speak Japanese.

4. He does his homework.

5. We live in Taiwan.

答案:

1. You don’t have a TV. Do you have a TV?

2. She doesn’t like coffee. Does she like coffee?

3. They don’t speak Japanese. Do they speak Japanese?

4. He doesn’t do his homework. Does he do his homework?

5. We don’t live in Taiwan. Do we live in Taiwan?

練習: 請選擇正確的動詞(判別要用Be動詞或一般動詞)

1. I am not/ do not sad.
2. They are not/ do not eat pork.
3. It is not/ does not hot.
4. She is not/ does not live in Taipei.
5. You are not/ do not late.
6. He is not/ does not play the guitar.

答案

1.am not

2. do not

3. is not

4. does not

5. are not

6. does not

現在簡單式中 yes/no問句 與 wh-問句 句構分析

英文的問句有很多種,以初學者來說最常接觸到的是yes/no問句和wh-問句,什麼是yes/no問句呢? 所謂的yes/no問句就是你的回答裡是會用yes/no去回答的

例一: Are you a student? Yes, I am.

你是個學生嗎? 是的,我是

例二: Do you have a cup of coffee every morning? Yes, I do.

你每天早上喝一杯咖啡嗎? 是的,我有

yes/no問句的句子結構上面已列表分析過,便不在贅述。

Wh-問句就是以how, what, who, why, when, where, which, whose等開頭的疑問詞的問句,又稱為information questions資訊型問句,顧名思義問問題是要獲得某個資訊,回答時會直接給該資訊而非用yes/no回答

例一: What’s your name? My name is Sue.

你的名字是? 我的名字是蘇

#人家問你名字,你不會回答 Yes, my name is Sue.是的,我的名字是蘇,這樣很奇怪也不合邏輯

例二: Where are you from? I’m from Taiwan.

你從哪裡來? 我來自台灣

例三: When do you do exercise? I usually do exercise on Saturdays.

你何時運動? 我通常周六運動

Wh-問句的句子結構:

帶Be動詞的wh-問句
Wh疑問詞+ Be動詞+ 主詞
答句
What is this? It’s an eraser.
What are those? They are notebooks.
Who is she? She is my sister.
帶一般動詞的wh-問句
Wh疑問詞+ 助動詞+ 主詞+一般動詞原型
Where do you live? I live in Changhua.
What does Lisa want? She wants your help.
When do you do exercise? I do exercise on Sundays.

練習題: 請看答句判別是要用yes/no問句或wh-問句造原問句

1. A: _____________________________________

B: Yes, he does his homework every day.

2. A: ______________________________________

B: Noodles. She eats noodles for dinner every day.

3. A: ______________________________________

B: In a townhouse. I live in a townhouse.

4. A: _____________________________________

B: Yes, I do. I work at the hospital.

5. A: ___________________________________

B: At 6:00. He eats dinner at 6:00.

6. A: _________________________________

B: A house. They need a house.

答案:

1. Does he do his homework every day?

2. What does she eat for dinner every day?

3. Where do you live?

4. Do you work at the hospital?

5. When/What time does he eat dinner?

6. What do they need?

現在簡單式常見問題

現在簡單式例句與用法

現在簡單式用以表達現在的事實或狀態(I am a student.)、過去現在未來都不變的恆久情境(The world is round.)、及習慣性的動作(I go to work every day.)。

現在簡單式公式

現在簡單式公式可分為Be 動詞與一般動詞兩類句型,現在簡單式中be 動詞為 is, am, are隨著前面的人稱作改變I am a student. You are a student. He is a student.否定句時在Be動詞後面加not,例如: I am not a student.;一般動詞(像eat, like, go等字)句型中 I like cats. He likes cats. 否定句時會改成I don’t like cats. He doesn’t like cats. 要使用助動詞don’tdoesn’t 改成否定句,助動詞後面的動詞要還原成原型。

現在簡單式動詞變化

現在簡單式中如果是一般動詞的句型遇到第三人稱單數(he他, she她, it它)時要做動詞變化,一般會加上s,例如: He likes cats. 中的動詞like要加上s;但不同的字尾會有不同的變化,如果是sh, ch, ss, x 的字尾則加es,例如: He watches TV every day. 子音加y則去y加ies,He studies every day. 母音加y 則直接加s,He pays his bills every month. 不規則變化則有have-> has, go-> goes, do-> does

現在簡單式代替未來式

未來簡單式中如果是表達時刻表常會使用現在簡單式,例如: The movies begin at 7 tomorrow night. The train leaves at 6 tomorrow morning. His plane arrives at 11 tonight.

觀看更多英文文法

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

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