過去簡單式入門文法-過去簡單式動詞變化一次破解

過去簡單式入門文法-過去簡單式動詞變化一次破解

過去簡單式

過去簡單式對許多英文初學者來說算是有點困難的時態,因為複雜的動詞變化常讓初學者霧煞煞,但其實只要將現在簡單式的句子結構了解清楚,過去簡單式的動詞變化就能很容易上手,本文承接現在簡單式中的句子結構,對過去簡單式的句子結構做進一步說明,用表格及簡單的練習題,希望可以對更多英文初學者在學習過去簡單式有所助益。

過去簡單式例句及使用情境

過去簡單式simple past tesne
使用情境 例句及解釋
1.過去簡單式描述某個情況或活動開始於過去,結束於過去的某個時間點 (例如: yesterday, last night, three days ago) I drank a cup of tea last night.
*我昨晚喝了一杯茶,我喝茶這件事開始於昨晚、結束於昨晚。

Tom lived in Taiwan for ten years when he was a child..

*Tom過去住在台灣十年當他小的時候,住在台灣十年這件事開始於過去結束於過去。

2. 過去簡單式常用於故事描述中 One day the emperor decided that he did not want to stay in the palace…
某天皇帝決定他不想待在皇宮...

過去簡單式Be動詞的句型變化

Be動詞在現在簡單式的句子中的is, am, are 在過去簡單式中

is/ am 會變成 was

are會變成were

人稱 現在簡單式 過去簡單式 肯定句

第一人稱單數

第一人稱複數

I am here.

We are here.

I was here yesterday.

We were here yesterday.

第二人稱 You are here. You were here yesterday.

第三人稱單數

He is here.

She is here.

It is here.

He was here yesterday.

She was here yesterday.

It was here yesterday.

第三人稱複數 They are here. They were here yesterday.
過去簡單式含Be動詞否定句

I, She, He, It

We, You, They

was not (wasn’t) here yesterday.

were not (weren’t) here yesterday.

過去簡單式含Be動詞的yes/no問句
WasI, she, he, it here yesterday?
Were we, you, they here yesterday?

練習題: 將下列句子改為過去簡單式

EX: I am happy today. -> I was happy yesterday.

1.We are at home today.

2.The weather is warm today.

3.Peter is at the library today.

4.Tony and John are in their yard today.

答案:

1. We were at home yesterday.

2. The weather was warm yesterday.

3. Peter was at the library yesterday.

4. Tony and John were in their yard yesterday.

練習題: 將下列句子改為否定句及yes/no問句

1. John was happy yesterday.

2. They were in class yesterday.

3. I was busy yesterday.

4. The weather was hot yesterday.

5.Mary was in the hospital last week.

答案:

1. John was not happy yesterday. (John wasn’t happy yesterday. )

Was John happy yesterday?

2. They were not in class yesterday. (They weren’t in class yesterday.)

Were they in class yesterday?

3. I wasn't busy yesterday. (I wasn't busy yesterday.)

Was I busy yesterday?

4. The weather was not hot yesterday. (The weather wasn’t hot yesterday.)

Was the weather hot yesterday?

5.Mary was not in the hospital last week. (Mary wasn’t in the hospital last week.)

Was Mary in the hospital last week?

過去簡單式一般動詞的句型變化

過去簡單式一般動詞的句型變化

現在簡單式 I work every day.I eat an apple every day.

過去簡單式 I worked yesterday. I ate an apple yesterday.

一般動詞在過去簡單式可分為規則動詞不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,不規則動詞則要用背的,不規則動詞我不會建議初學者拿不規則動詞表來背,因為很無聊而且效果不彰,應當是在學習或會話中碰到再背就可以了

1.規則動詞一般來說都加ed,但有些情況比較特別,列表如下:

smile-> smiled

die-> died

e結尾的字-> 直接加d

stop-> stopped

plan-> planned

一母音加一子音結尾的字,且是單音節-> 重複字尾加ed

prefer-> perferred

admit-> admitted

一母音加一子音結尾的字,雙音節但重音在後面- > 重複字尾加ed

worry-> worried

study-> studied

子音加y結尾的字,去y加ieds

練習題: 將下列動詞改為過去式的型態

1. wait 2. plan 3. hope 4. try 5. play 6. die

答案:

1. waited 2. planned 3. hoped 4. tried 5. played 6. died

2.時間詞列表

yesterday last ago

yesterday昨天

yesterday morning 昨天早上

yesterday afternoon 昨天下午

yesterday evening 昨天傍晚

last night 昨天晚上

last year 去年

last month 上個月

last week 上周

last spring 去年春天

last Monday上周一

five minutes ago五分鐘前

two days ago兩天前

yesterday 跟morning, afternoon, evening 連用,但昨天晚上要說last night 年、月、季節、星期都是跟last連用。

如果是有加數字的,例如: 5分鐘前,則用five minutes +ago來表示

練習題:

1.上周五 2. 上周末 3.去年夏天 4.昨天傍晚 5. 三天前 6. 上個月

答案:

1. last Friday 2. last weekend 3. last summer

4. yesterday evening 5. three days ago 6.last month

3.過去簡單式一般動詞否定句,需要加入助動詞did not(縮寫didn’t),該句的一般動詞必須還原為原型動詞。does和do 在過去式中都變成did

肯定句 否定句

I

We

You

They

He

She

It

ate apples yesterday.

I

We

You

They

He

She

It

did not eat apples yesterday.
縮寫: I didn’t eat apples yesterday.

4.過去簡單式一般動詞yes/no問句,需要在句子開頭加入助動詞did,該句的一般動詞必須還原為原型動詞

肯定句 yes/no問句

I

We

You

They

He

She

It

ate apples yesterday.

Did

I

we

you

they

she

he

it

eat apples yesterday?

練習題: 將下列句子改為否定句及yes/no問句

1. She stayed home yesterday.

2. He did his homework last night.

3. I drank a cup of tea yesterday.

4. They watched TV last night.

5.Mary came to class last Monday.

答案:

1. She did not stay home yesterday. (She didn’t stay home yesterday.)

Did she stay home yesterday?

2. He did not do his homework last night. (He didn’t do his homework last night.)

Did he do his homework last night?

3. I did not drink a cup of tea yesterday. (I didn’t drink a cup of tea yesterday.)

Did you drink a cup of tea yesterday?

4. They did not watch TV last night. (They didn’t watch TV last night.)

Did they watch TV last night?

5. Mary did not come to class last Monday. (Mary didn’t come to class last Monday.)

Did Mary come to class last Monday?

過去簡單式一般動詞及Be動詞 wh-問句例句

Where were you last night? At home.
When were you sick? Last week.
What did you do yesterday? I did my homework yesterday.
Where did you go yesterday? I went to Taipei yesterday.
What time/When did you get up this morning? I got up at 8 this morning.
Why did you run? Because I was late for class.

練習題: 請看答句判別是要用yes/no問句或wh-問句造原問句

1. A: _____________________________________

B: Yes, he was at home last night.

2. A: ______________________________________

B: Taipei. I went to Taipei last month.

3. A: ______________________________________

B: At the train station. Ben and Jack were at the train station at noon.

4. A: _____________________________________

B: Yes, I did. I went to England for my vacation.

5. A: ___________________________________

B: At 6:00. He ate breakfast at 6:00.

6. A: _________________________________

B: Because I was tired. I didn’t go swimming because I was tired.

答案:

1. Was he at home last night?

2. Where did you go last month?

3. Where were Ben and Jack at noon?

4. Did you go to England for your vacation?

5.What time did he eat breakfast?

6. Why didn’t you go swimming?

過去簡單式常見問題

過去簡單式用法

過去簡單式描述某個情況或活動開始於過去,結束於過去的某個時間點,例如: Jan was not happy yesterday. Jan昨天不開心。I went to Taipie yesterday. 我昨天去台北。

過去簡單式公式

過去簡單式公式可分為Be 動詞與一般動詞兩類句型,過去簡單式中is, am會變成was; are變成were. 例如: I was here yesterday. He was here yesterday.You were a student four years ago. ;否定句中在be動詞後加not,例如: I was not here yesterday.

一般動詞(像eat, like, go等字)在過去簡單式可分為規則動詞及不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,不規則動詞則要用背的,例如: I walked to school yesterday. 我昨天走路去學校,walk加ed; He drank some milk yesterday. 他昨天喝了一些牛奶, 動詞drink改成過去式型態drank;否定句不管主詞的人稱為何都會用到助動詞didn’t, 例如: I didn’t walk to school yesterday. He didn’t drink any milk yesterday. 注意否定句中,助動詞後面的動詞要還原成原型。

過去簡單式時間詞

yesterday morning 昨天早上, yesterday afternoon 昨天下午, yesterday eveningy昨天傍晚,但昨天晚上要說last night;年、月、季節、星期都是跟last連用,例如:last year, last month, last spring, last week, last Monday; 如果是有加數字的,則會與ago連用,例如: five minutes ago 5分鐘前。

觀看更多英文文法

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

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