some any用法一次搞懂

some any用法一次搞懂

some any 是英文中常見的量詞,通常放在名詞前面來用,這兩個字都可以與可數名詞與不可數名詞連用 ,some 通常用於肯定句,any則用於疑問句與否定句,這是多數英文初學者對some any的理解,但事實上some也可以用在疑問句,用在疑問句時通常有預期或希望對方認同的涵義在,而any也有用在肯定句的情境,當any跟特殊的字詞連用或者是當any的文意是「任何一個,無論哪個」時,除此之外some any也可以當作副詞來使用並有很多其他常見於日常生活中的連用詞,本文將以例句逐一頗析some any的實用用法,讓你對some any的用法有更深一層的認識。

一 some any當量詞用法

some 和any 當量詞使用時通常分別翻成「一些、一點、相當多/大量」或「一些、任何、無論哪個」,用來表示不確定的數量,some 和any 都可以與可數名詞與不可數名詞連用 ,some 通常用於肯定句或表達期待或鼓勵對方回答yes的問句中; any則多用於疑問句與否定句,any用於肯定句中時有其特殊含意:

1. some 用法與例句

1) some用於肯定句
I need some new skirts.
我需要一些新的裙子,skirt是可數名詞,在這句話中裙子的確切數量不重要或沒被提及

Winnie has some money.
Winnie有一些錢,money是不可數名詞,在這句話中金錢的確切數量沒被提及或不重要

在某些情況下some表達「相當多、大量的」含意,常用於表達一段很長的時間例如:

John has lived in Taiwan for some years, so he speaks Mandarin very well. John已經待在台灣好幾年的時間,所以他中文說得很好

Due to the operation, it will be some time before she can eat again. 因為要手術,她要在相當長的時間之後才能再次進食

It took some effort to learn a language. 學一個語言需要相當多的努力

2) some用於期待或鼓勵對方回答yes的問句中,這些問句通常是與請求或提供東西有關

Could I have some milk, please?我可以要一些牛奶嗎? 說話者請求聽者給他一些牛奶並希望對方回答有

Would you like some coffee?你想要喝點咖啡嗎? 說話者詢問意願並預期對方回答yes

Have you brought some pencils? 你有帶一些鉛筆嗎? 在此問句中我預期聽者是回答yes的

Why don’t we have some snacks? 一起吃些點心吧? 說話者提出建議一起吃些點心並預期聽者回答yes

2. any 用法與例句

1) any用於否定句與疑問句
I don’t have any sweaters. 我沒有一些毛衣,sweater是可數名詞,在這句話中毛衣的確切數量沒被提及或不重要,any用於否定句中

Winne doesn’t have any money. Winnie沒有一些錢,money 是不可數名詞,在這句話中金錢的確切數量沒被提及或不重要,這句話是否定句,用any來表達一些

除了not, any也會與否定字例如: never,without, hardly 等連用,例如:
Jay never adopted any cats. Jay從未領養過任何貓咪
Sunny completed the project without any trouble. Sunny毫無困難地完成專案

Jason usually travels without any cash. Jason通常不攜帶任何現金旅行
There’s hardly any water left in the water bottle. 水瓶內幾乎沒剩下一點水
Due to the hot weather, she hardly ate anything. 因為天氣熱她幾乎沒什麼吃

Have you got any cookies?你有一些餅乾嗎? cookie是可數名詞,在這句話中餅乾的確切數量沒被提及或不重要,any用於疑問句中

Is there any more flour ? 還有麵粉嗎? flour是不可數名詞,在這句話中麵粉的確切數量沒被提及或不重要,any用於疑問句中

2) any用於肯定句的特殊情況

any用於肯定句時有可能是「如果有任何...」的含意,根據Swan一書英文的解釋定義為 "if there is/are any" 例如: Any drivers who run a red light will be ticketed. 任何闖紅燈的駕駛都會被開罰單,這邊的any drivers隱含的意思是如果有任何的駕駛 (if there are any drivers)

Email me any questions you have. 你可以email我任何你有的疑問,這邊的any questions隱含的意思為如果你有任何的問題 (if you have any questions)

也就是說在if 的子句中any很常出現,例如在商業書信中寄信人通常文末會寫到" If you have any questions or concerns, please contact me. 如果你有任何問題請聯絡我" 這樣的句子,另外 some也常在if的子句中出現,例如: If you find any/some useful information, please let me know as soon as possible. 如果你找到任何/一些有用的資訊請盡速跟我聯絡。

除此之外,any用於肯定句中也可拿來強調「自由選擇 free choice」的語意,中文語意為「任何一個,無論哪個」,根據Swan一書中英文的解釋定義為: “it doesn’t matter who/which/what”,劍橋英文字典的英文定義為 "one of or each of a particular type of person or thing when it is not important which" 當any表示「任何一個,無論哪個」的含意時,則肯定句、問句、否定句皆可使用,後面可以接單數或複數的可數名詞及不可數名詞,請看以下例句:

Ask any teacher-- they will all tell you that there is no royal road to learning. 問任何一位老師,他們都會告訴你學習無捷徑,這句的含意是你可以自由選擇任何一位老師,你選哪一位老師問並不重要

When shall we have the meeting? Any day. 我們何時開會? 任何一天皆可,這句的涵義為你可以自由選擇任何一天來舉辦會議

Which of these books can I borrow? 這些書我可以借哪一本?
You can check out any book you like. 你可以借任何一本你喜歡的書,你可以自由選擇借哪一本書,你借哪一本並不重要

The offer was that you could choose any three toppings you liked to put on your ice cream.優惠是你可以任選三種配料淋上你的冰淇淋,你選哪種三配料並不重要

練習題: 請填入some 或any,注意有的可能兩者皆可

1.Peter has ______ dogs, but he doesn’t have ______cats.

2. I am going to the supermarket later. Do you need to buy ________food?

3. Kelly doesn’t know how to answer these questions. She needs ________help from her friends. On the other hand, Joe finished his homework without _____ help.

4. The classroom is empty. There aren’t _____students in the classroom.

5. There are _______birds in that tree.

6. Which of these cups can I use? _______ of them.

7. You can borrow ____movie you like.

答案:

1. some, any 2. some/any 3. some, any 4. any 5. some 6. Any 7. any

3. any和 any of ; some和some of 的用法差異

對some 和any有基本的認識後,我們來看一下到底什麼情況下會用some of 和any of呢? 後面是接代名詞(you, us)或後面的名詞是特定有所指的名詞時就會要用,特定有所指的名詞前面通常有the, this, that, these, those或所有格my, his, Mary’s這樣的字詞時就會用some of /any of 我們來看幾個例句:

Some novels are written in French.
一些小說是用法文寫
Some of the novels are written in French.
這些小說其中一些是用法文寫的 (the用於聽者與說話者共同知道的事物)
Some of my books are in the drawers.
我的書其中一些在抽屜裡
Some of those books are on the desk.
那些書的其中一些在書桌上
Some of us want to play soccer.
我們之中的一些人想要踢足球

I didn’t do any projects on English education last semester.
上學期我沒有做任何關於英語教育的專案
I wasn’t interested in any of the projects.
我對這些專案中之中的任何一個都不感興趣
I didn’t read any of those books.
我沒有讀那些書中的任何一本
Did you borrow any of John’s books?
你有跟John借任何一本書嗎
Any of you can answer this question.
你們之中任何一個人都可以回答這個問題
I don’t think any of us want to go swimming tomorrow.
我不認為我們之中有任何人明天想去游泳

If any of your coworkers are/is 如果你的同事中有任何人對這個產品感興趣請讓我知道

*如果any of接複數的主詞時,該句話的動詞可以是單數動詞或複數動詞,單數動詞通常用於正式文體中。

練習題: 判定句子中是否需要填入of,如果需要請填入of,如果不需要請打X

1. I know some ___ Jan’s friends.
2. I have met some ___ people recently.
3. Some ___students are hardworking, while others are lazy.
4. Some ___the students in Miss Rose’s class are very smart.
5. Some ___books have appendixes.
6. Some ___Rowling’s ideas come from Greek mythology.
7. Some ___us would like to have Japanese food.
8. Have you gone on any ___business trips lately?
9. Mr. Jeffery hasn’t met any ____the customers in that company.
10. I haven’t got any ____ email from my supervisor.
11. Do any ___ these T-shirts belong to you?
12. Do any ___you know how to fix this copy machine?
13. I didn’t take any___ French classes last year.
14. Any ___your friends are welcome.
15. Some ___the apples in that basket are green.

答案:

1.of 2.X 3.X 4.of 5.X 6.of 7.of 8.X 9.of 10.X
11.of 12.of 13.X 14.of 15.of

4. some 和 any後面的名詞省略

當上下文的句意很清楚時,some 和 any後面修飾的名詞可省略,例如: I have bought too many notebooks. Do you want to have some?我已經買了很多筆記本,你有想要一些嗎? 在這個例子中我們知道對方指的東西是筆記本,所以後面那句話中的名詞就可以省略。

A: Did you get the face masks? 你有拿到那些口罩嗎?
B: No, there wasn’t any left. 沒有,都沒有剩下
在這個例子中我們知道前一個人指的東西是口罩,所以後面那句話中的名詞就可以省略。

二 some any 其他常見用法

some any 其他常見用法

1. not any 與no

no 與 not any的意思相同,但是語氣更重一點
She doesn’t have any friends. 她沒有任何的朋友
She has no friends. 強調她沒有任何朋友

除此之外,no可以用於句子的開頭但是not any不行
No cats like this toy. 沒有貓咪喜歡這個玩具 不能寫Not any cats like this toy.

2. some與單數名詞連用時通常代表未知的人或事物

some與單數名詞連用時通常代表未知的人或事物,中文通常翻成某人某物

例一:

A: I don’t know which topic to choose.
我不知道要選哪個主題
B: There must be some topic you are interested in.
一定有某個主題你是感興趣的吧!

例二:

A: Why can’t I get into that room?
為什麼我進不去那個房間
B: Some idiot has locked the door.
某個笨蛋把門上鎖了

3. some- and any-

someone, somebody, anyone, anybody; something, anything; somewhere, anywhere的差異與some 和any的差異一樣,分別用於肯定句或否定與疑問句,請看以下例句:
There is someone in the front yard. 前院有人

Has anyone seen my key? 有任何人看到我的鑰匙嗎?
He hasn’t talked to anyone today. 他今天都還沒有跟任何人說過話

Would you like something to drink? 你想要喝點什麼嗎?

I didn’t know anything about cats until I adopted that stray cat. 在收養那隻流浪貓之前,我對貓咪一無所知
Is there anything I can do to make you feel better? 有沒有任何我能做的事情能讓你覺得好一點?

I must have put my glasses somewhere! 我一定是把我的眼鏡放在什麼地方了

I can’t find my glasses anywhere! 我到處都找不到我的眼鏡

4. some time, sometime, sometimes的差別

some time 表示相當長的時間(quite a long time)
It took him some time to recover from her brain operation.
他動腦部手術後很長一段時間才恢復健康

sometime 表示將來或過去的某個時候
Let’s meet sometime in April to talk about the project you have done.
讓我們在四月的某個時候來聊聊你做的專案
My cats were born sometime in the summer.
我的貓咪們在夏天的某個時候出生

sometimes 是一個頻率副詞,有時候的意思
When I stayed in the United States, I sometimes went to church.
當我待在美國時,我有時候會去上教堂
I sometimes do yoga. 有時候會做瑜珈

三 some any當副詞用

some 當副詞用時有「大約或稍微」的意思,當some與數量連用時通常表示該數量非常的大或令人印象深刻;any當副詞用時則有「稍微或根本...」的意思,常用於修飾比較級形容詞或以any different, any good, any use的詞組出現於句中:

In order to do this project, he has read some seven hundred books. 為了做這個專案,他讀了大約700本書。

We could turn up the volume some if you want. 如果你想要的話我們可以把音量調稍微大聲一點

Can’t you walk any faster? 你不能再走快一點嗎? any修飾faster這個比較級形容詞

His teaching style isn’t any different from the traditional one. John的教書風格跟傳統方式沒什麼不同

This wireless mouse isn’t any good. 這個無線滑鼠根本不好用

參考書目:

Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Basic English Grammar.4th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2014.

Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.

劍橋詞典

訂閱多益必考單字與最新文章

Rose老師整理的Quizlet多益必考單字,20個章節練習,歡迎訂閱免費獲得連結!

訂閱後1天內您將收到連結信件(建議gmail較不容易漏信,訂閱後如未收到請檢查促銷內容、垃圾信件),如都未收到歡迎私訊粉絲頁或來信 ,將直接寄送連結給您!

一對一、一對二線上英文家教課程

提供一對一、一對二客製化文法和多益考試英文課程,評估學生學習需求制訂上課內容,如有課程需求歡迎FB或來信詢問謝謝!

文章分類