中式英文餐飲篇特輯讓你吃出英文力

中式英文餐飲篇特輯讓你吃出英文力

餐飲是台灣文化核心之一,除了夜市小吃之外,走在路上可以看到許多餐廳、小吃攤,台灣各地也有許多當地的特色美食,台灣人常見面的打招呼方式不是問對方:「你好嗎?」而是問:「你吃飽了嗎?」那「你吃飽了嗎?」這句話的英文倒底該怎麼說呢? 有客人來到家裡時,如果接近用餐時間,好客的台灣人一定是要請對方在家裡或去餐館吃個飯,那預約餐廳到底要用reservation 還是appointment,畢竟兩個字都翻成預約;酒足飯飽後來杯茶解膩再好不過,有人喜歡喝濃茶有人喜歡喝淡茶,濃茶淡茶英文該怎麼講?冬天到時台灣人都愛吃熱熱的熟食,煮泡麵當宵夜或喝一碗熱湯,但是熟食不可以講hot food,泡麵不是fast noodles,喝湯也不是drink soup喔,本文談論幾個與餐飲相關、學生常講錯的中式英文用詞,並詳細解析正確的英文用法。

1.你吃飽了嗎? 這句英文該怎麼說

你吃飽了嗎?台灣人常常直接講出Are you eat already? 或 Do you eat already?的中式英文,這樣的講法是錯誤的,應該要說Have you eaten? 才對。

你吃飽了嗎? 你做完功課了嗎? 你出過國了嗎?我們中文的「了」 在英文要用現在完成式來表達。關於現在完成式的詳細用法,讀者可參考完成式的文章,這邊只簡述現在完成式的部分概念。

完成式的核心概念是表達在某個時間點之前已經完成某事,那現在完成式可以用來表達的是在「現在」這個時間點之前「已經完成」的事,但是「時間點不重要」。什麼意思呢? 例如: 你問對方「你吃飽了嗎?」要表達的是你在乎到現在之前對方吃過了沒? 但是你並沒有問對方幾點吃? 如果你要問對方何時吃飯必須說When did you have your meal?要用過去簡單式來表達。換句話說,我在六點吃晚餐這件事隨著說法的不同,用的時態就不同,如果我說我已經吃晚餐了,英文是I have eaten dinner. 用現在完成式來表達,但是如果要講我六點吃完餐,六點鐘是個在過去明確的時間點,英文要說

I ate dinner at 6 o’clock.

現在完成式

現在完成式圖例

過去簡單式

過去簡單式圖例

至於 「already已經」這個字的擺放順序,台灣學生有時就直接按中文字的順序直接照翻,例如「我已經累了」或「我已經做完功課了 」很多學生會講I already was tired. I already have done my homework. 的中式英文,這樣的句子是錯誤的,要注意already這個字的擺放順序可分為三類:

1.already通常用於句末

I was tired already. I have done my homework already.

2.already放於主要動詞之前和Be動詞之後

I already knew this.

I was already tired.

3. 如果有助動詞already必須馬上放在助動詞之後

I have already done my homework.

John has already left.

2.你還在說I have ever...這樣的中式英文句子嗎?

你曾經吃過臭豆腐嗎? Have you ever eaten stinky tofu?你曾經去過日本嗎? Have you ever been to Japan? 當被問到這樣的問題時,許多人常會用中式英文來回答Yes, I have ever eaten stinky tofu.我曾經吃過臭豆腐 Yes, I have ever been to Japan.我曾經去過日本。I have ever…. 這樣的句子是錯誤的,正確的句子是I have eaten stinky tofu. I have been to Japan. 以下參考Michael Swan的Practical English Usage及朗文字典和劍橋字典簡述ever的正確用法:

ever這個字的意思是"at any time "在任何時候,很常與完成式連用,通常用在問句及否定句,不太會用在肯定句,用在肯定句時通常有其特殊用法(例如: 與比較級、最高級、if子句或as, only, since等字詞連用)

1.問句: Have you ever been to England?

2.否定句: I don’t ever drive to work. 但是在否定句中,never比not ever更常使用EX: I never drive to work.

有些字詞像nothing, nobody, hardly有否定的意思,也會與ever 連用

EX: Nobody ever visits that grumpy old man.

EX: Nothing ever seems to upset her.

EX: She hardly ever calls her parents.

3. ever在肯定句中的特殊用法

1) 比較級: You are looking more beautiful than ever. 你看起來比之前任何時候都更漂亮

2) 最高級: This is the best book I have ever read. 這是我讀過最棒的書

3) If子句中: If you are ever in Taiwan, come and see us. 如果你有來台灣的話,要來拜訪我們

4) as ...as ever的句型英文定義是as ...as at any time before像往常一樣...

He is as kind as ever. 他像往常一樣友善

as ever 的英文定義是as always happens像往常一樣:

As ever, John was late.

5) He is the only man ever to have invented so many things at such a young age. 他是唯一一個在這麼年輕的年紀發明如此多物件的男人

6) ever since英文定義是continuously since一直: His stomach has been bad ever since he got the stomach flu three months ago. 自從三個月前的那次腸胃炎之後他的胃就一直不好

7) ever after英文定義是for all time after something從此之後

The prince and the princess got married and lived happily ever after. 王子與公主結婚並從此過著幸福快樂的生活

3.老外聽得霧煞煞的中式英文No, I am. Yes, I don’t.

當別人問你「Don’t you like fish?你不喜歡魚嗎?」「Aren’t you tired?你不累嗎?」 你想回答「是的,我不喜歡魚。」「不,我很累。」英文該怎麼說? 中文有所謂負負得正的概念,所以很多學生在用英文回答「是的,我不喜歡魚。」「不,我很累。」就會說Yes, I 'don’t like fish. 或No, I am tired. 這樣錯誤的中式英文句子。其實回答英文的yes/no問句的邏輯非常簡單,就是肯定意思或否定的意思都要一致,你不喜歡魚就說No, I don’t like fish.你喜歡魚就說Yes, I do. I like fish.你很累就說Yes, I am tired. 你不累就說No, I am not tired.

中式英文餐飲圖例

4.「餐廳有很多人」為什麼不能講The restaurant has a lot of people.

我們在講「我有一隻狗;餐廳有很多人;桌上有一顆蘋果」這些句子中的「有」字倒底該用have/has還是there +be來表達? 很多學生常搞不清楚以致於講出There has an apple. There will have ten people in this room tomorrow. The restaurant has a lot of people. 這樣錯誤的中式英文句子。如果今天句子的文意是人擁有什麼東西,例如: 我有一隻狗,他有一輛車。那英文要說I have a dog. He has a car. 但是如果你是想表達在某個地點有什麼東西,例如: 餐廳有很多人,有一隻鳥在樹上,英文要說There are a lot of people in the restaurant. There is a bird in the tree.

5. 預約、約會相關英文正確用字

Sarah 和 Ben是男女朋友,兩人周末有個「約會」,所以Ben想「預約」Sarah喜歡的義式餐廳;Sarah明天和朋友有個「約會」,但是在和朋友碰面之前,Sarah和她的教授有「約」,以上這些和預約,約會的用字用英文倒底該怎麼說呢? 可不是像中文一個字通用到底喔!

首先,跟男女朋友之間的約會要用date這個字來表達, 所以Sarah 和 Ben兩人周末有個「約會」英文會說Ben is going to go out on a date with Sarah this weekend.

如果是要預約某個空間在未來使用,例如: 預約餐廳桌位、劇院、飛機火車上的座位、旅館的房間或停車位等等,英文會使用reserve /make a reservation或是book

以下舉例:

*餐廳

Receptionist: Thank you for calling Skyblue Restaurant. How may I help you?

Caller: I’d like to make a dinner reservation on June 22. I’d like to reserve a table for two.

Receptionist: Certainly.

*旅館:

Guest: Good evening. I’d like to check in, please.

Clerk: Certainly, Miss. Do you have a reservation?

Guest: Yes. It’s in the name of Sarah Sanders.

Clerk: That’s right. You’ve booked a room with the view of the sea.

------------------------------------------------------

Guest: Hello, is that the Howard Hotel?

Receptionist: Yes, it is. How may I help you sir?

Guest: I want to book a single room for the 22nd.

*劇院:

Sarah: What are you going to do this weekend?

Jan: I’m not sure. I’d like to see a show. Could you recommend something?

Sarah: Well, how about Cats? It’s a great musical.

Jan: Sounds good. Do I have to reserve tickets in advance? (Do I have to book tickets in advance?)

Sarah: Yes, I think so.

*機場/車站

Michelle: This flight was already fully booked. I think we need to choose another flight.

Jan: Or we can travel by HSR.

Michelle: That’s a great idea. I have never thought about that. Let’s book tickets right now.

Jan: No no no. Although you can buy tickets for reserved seats in advance, they are much more expensive. Why don’t we wait until the day of the ride to buy tickets for non-reserved seats? They are cheaper.

Michelle: OK. Good idea.

*其他:

In an office building: Robert is a new employee. His coworker, Eugene, is showing Robert around the office.

Eugene: This room is reserved for smokers.

Robert: I don’t smoke, but thanks for letting me know. By the way, where can I park my car?

Eugene: You can park in the parking space behind the office building. Only executives and the employee of the year get reserved parking spaces in the office building.

如果你是跟客戶、經理、或是一些專業人士(例如: 醫生、治療師、老師、會計師、髮型設計師等等)有預約,通常是為了生意上的交流(business meetings)或某個特定目的(例如: 治療疾病、報稅、剪髮等等),來預約某個時間地點碰面,那英文會have an appointment/ make an appointment來講:

I am tired all the time. I think I need to make an appointment to see the doctor.

Margaret has an appointment with an important client at 9:30.

I've got a three o’clock appointment at the hairdresser’s.

Betty: I’m here for my job interview. I have an appointment with the manager.

Receptionist: What time is your appointment?

Betty: It’s at 10:30 A.M.

但是如果你是計畫要和朋友碰面或出去玩(make plans to see your friends),英文不可以用have an appointment 或have a reservation也不能講have a date, 因為date 這個詞是用在浪漫關係的約會;當然更不能講 I am going to play with my friends.這樣的中式英文,因為play with someone/with some toys是用於小孩子玩耍的情境,例如:

Children like to play with each other.

My five-year-old nephew likes to play with stuffed animals.

Parents need to spend more time playing with their children.

和朋友的碰面,英文可以用 hang out with someone, visit 或meet up with someone來表達:

I'm going to hang out with my friends this weekend.

I visited my best friend last Saturday.

I’m meeting up with my old friends after work.

「visit拜訪」可以用在很多地方,例如拜訪祖父母,拜訪平輩等等,但通常語氣上會令人覺得比較正式

I went to Lukang to visit my grandparents last night.

Elsa went to Phoenix to visit her cousins.

常見的餐飲中式英文圖例

6.常見的餐飲中式英文-搭配詞錯誤

台灣人習慣吃飽飯後喝一碗湯,中文講「喝」湯,很多人就直接講出drink soup的中式英文,湯對外國人而言是用吃的,所以應該要說eat soup才正確,湯品有分濃稠的湯和清湯,形容湯很濃英文要說thick soup,例如台灣很有名的肉羹湯英文叫pork thick soup;另外大家熟知的海鮮巧達濃湯,英文是chowder; 清湯英文則是clear soup,既然濃湯英文叫做thick soup,那你大概會問濃茶/咖啡很濃是不是可以叫thick tea, thick coffee? 如果你這樣推論可就錯了,形容茶和咖啡的味道很濃烈英文要講strong tea/ strong coffee,淡茶/淡咖啡則是weak tea/weak coffee, strong/weak用來形容茶味道的濃烈程度,但是如果你是要表達茶色深淺則會用dark/light來形容。

烈酒英文也是strong alcohol但是烈酒你可以直接用liquorspirit這兩個字來講,例如: Vodka is his favorite type of spirit/ liquor. 在講酒的時候,很多初學者在學單字時常搞不清楚 alcohol, wine, beer, spirit 有什麼差別,alcohol算是酒類的總稱,beer是啤酒,wine則是葡萄酒或其他用水果花卉發酵製成的水果酒,所以我們說的紅酒白酒,英文就是red wine, white wine; still wine 是沒有氣泡的酒,sparkling wine就是氣泡酒,fortified wine則是加度葡萄酒,例如: Martini is a kind of fortified wine.

“Hot food” 這個詞在不同的語境中會有不同的意思,The restaurant serves hot and cold food. 這家餐廳供應冷熱食品,這裡的hot food是指熱食,但是如果你在跟你的外國朋友點餐,他問你說Are the beef noodles hot? 這裡的文意就不是這道牛肉麵是熱的嗎? 而是在問你辣不辣? “hot”也有 “spicy”的意思,下次聽到別人講hot food,先弄清楚上下文是什麼喔!那我們去逛超市時,有時如果懶得煮飯會直接買「熱騰騰現成的熟食餐」那熱騰騰現成的熟食餐這句英文該怎麼說呢? 你可以說hot ready-made meals; 超級市場的「熟食櫃台」英文是delideli counter,熟食櫃台販賣各種乳酪、冷卻熟肉或沙拉。

在課堂上曾聽學生用fast noodles或quick noodles來表達泡麵,這是錯誤的中式英文,泡麵正確的英文是instant noodles; 即溶咖啡或即溶湯包也會說instant coffee, instant soup; instant food根據劍橋字典的英文定義是可以加熱水沖泡後即可食用的乾燥的食物;fast food 則是指像漢堡、薯條可以很快準備好讓你內用或外帶的食物,所以麥當勞、肯德基之類的速食餐廳英文是fast food restaurant.

fast, quick, rapid中文都翻成「快」,那要表達開車很「快」,很「快」地喝完茶就離開,他跑步很「快」,新冠狀病毒的「快」篩,這些「快」字英文倒底要用fast, quick/quickly還是rapid/rapidly呢?

首先來探討一下詞性的問題:

fast這個字同時是形容詞也是副詞,所以英文沒有fastly這個字喔!

quick是形容詞,它的副詞是quickly.

rapid是形容詞,它的副詞是quickly.

(*小提醒: 形容詞用來修飾名詞,副詞用來修飾動詞和形容詞)

接下來我們來探討fast, quick/quickly, rapid/rapidly的使用情境: (以下quick/fast/rapid的用法參考自劍橋字典及朗文字典)

簡單概要來說fast通常用來描述「速度speed」,quick則是與「時間time」有關,rapid則常用於形容「變化changes、數量增加increases、或情況改進improvements等情況,但是有些情況可能兩個字都可以,所以主要還是要看習慣性的搭配詞怎麼用

1.fast用來描述某樣東西或人速度很快,所以你要描述火車很快,他開車很快,英文會說 It was a fast train. He usually drives fast. She is walking fast.

2. quick用於形容發生的時間很短或比預期的時間要短的事情,例如你要講你很快的喝完一杯茶吃完點心然後離開辦公室,英文會說 I had a cup of quick tea as well as a quick snack, and left the office. 你不能講fast tea或fast snack這是錯誤的; 或是你問對方一個問題,對方長篇大論講了一堆,但是其實你在趕時間只希望對方簡短快速的回答,這時候你就可以說I just need a quick answer. 或是你時間有限,想要很快地跟對方討論某件事,你可以說Let’s have a quick chat. 你不能講fast answer或者是fast chat. 這是錯誤的。

但是quick/quickly也可以用來形容速度,例如: 這條河流速很快The river was flowing quickly. 她以輕快的步伐走路 She walked with short, quick steps. 也就是說「他跑得很快」英文可以講He runs quickly/fast. 兩者皆可; 或者形容人學東西很快,你可以說I’m a quick learner. I'm a fast learner. 兩者皆可。

3. rapid常用於形容變化發展、數量增加或減少、或情況改進等情況,以下列出rapid常見的搭配詞 我們處於一個快速變遷的世界We are living in a rapidly changing world. 某個時期快速的變化/成長/衰退 The 21st century was a period of rapid change/growth/ decline.

人口成長快速The population is growing rapidly.

犯罪的增加 a rapid increase in crime.

利潤快速減少 a rapid decline in profits.

某公司生意的快速擴張 the rapid expansion of the company’s business

太陽能產業擴張快速The solar power industry is expanding rapidly.

工業發展快速 the rapid rate of industrial development

病人恢復很快 The patient made a rapid recovery.

密切接觸人群造成疾病傳播快速Close contact between people resulted in the rapid spread of the disease.

新冠狀病毒快篩 the rapid test for COVID-19

進步快速Tom made rapid progress under his teacher’s guidance.

科技進步快速Technological progress has been rapid over the past few years.

但是像response這個詞 fast response, quick response, rapid response 都有人說

Their response to the crisis of the pandemic was rapid. 他們對全球大流行病的危機反應很快

The company gave a fast response to clients’ requests. 公司對客戶的要求回應快速

A good salesperson should have good communication skills and a quick response. 一個好的業務應具備好的溝通技巧及反應敏捷

總而言之要把英文學精確,多看多聽很重要,在學習的過程中更要注意搭配詞的使用才不會講出充滿錯誤的中式英文。

7.用「現金付款」英文該怎麼說?

去餐廳用餐最後結帳付款,收銀員通常會問你How would you like to pay? 你想要用怎麼樣的方式付款? 在台灣大部分的客人都會用現金或信用卡付款,用信用卡付款,英文是I’ll pay by credit card. 用支票付款英文是I’ll pay by check. 但是要用英文講現金付款時,很多學生常講pay by cash這樣錯誤的中式英文,「現金付款」正確的英文是I’ll pay in cash.I’ll pay cash.

關於pay這個字很多學生常常搞不清楚什麼時候要用pay,什麼時候要用pay for ,參考朗文字典簡述之:

如果你是要講付多少錢,付錢給某人,或付某人多少錢

英文會說I paid $ 100 dollars. I paid the delivery person. I paid my landlord $5000 dollars. 付帳單、付租金、繳稅金,英文也是直接用I paid the bill; I paid the rent, I paid my taxes.

Pay for則是用在你花錢購買的東西上或服務上pay for something that you buy ,例如: 你付錢買票I paid for the tickets. 我喜歡你的新車,你付多少錢買它? I like your new car. How much did you pay for it? 你幫他顧孩子他有付錢給你嗎? Did he pay you for taking care of his kids? 我花一百元買這件裙子 I paid $100 dollars for this skirt.

結語:

本文分享了餐飲上的常見中式英文錯誤,重點摘要如下:

1.你吃飽了嗎? 英文會說Have you eaten?

2. 我曾經...英文不能說I have ever…

3. 回答英文的yes/no問句,沒有所謂的負負得正,表達肯定的意思就都用肯定字句回答,表達否定就都用否定字句回答

4. have/has是用在人擁有什麼東西,某個地點有什麼要用There is/are的句型來說

5. date是表達男女朋友之間的約會,reserve /make a reservation是指預約某個空間在未來使用,為了生意或特定目的與專業人士預約要講make an appointment,和朋友碰面可以講hang out with sb., visit sb. 或 meet up with sb.

6.(1)喝湯eat soup, 濃湯thick soup, 清湯 clear soup, 濃茶烈酒strong tea/ strong alcohol, 淡茶weak tea, 熟食hot ready-made meals, 泡麵instant noodles

(2)fast通常用來描述「速度speed」,quick則是與「時間time」有關,rapid則常用於形容「變化changes、數量增加increases、或情況改進improvements等情況」

7. 用「現金付款」I’ll pay in cash.I’ll pay cash.

付多少錢、付錢給某人、付某人多少錢、付帳單、付租金、繳稅金都是直接用pay;Pay for則是用在你花錢購買的東西上或服務上pay for something that you buy

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