a few a little few little 用法一次搞懂
a few a little few little 當數量詞用法
a few, a little, few, little 是常見的數量詞之一，在用法上a few, few 與「可數名詞」連用， a little, little 則與「不可數名詞」連用，在文意上a few, a little是指「一些」，是帶有「正向」的文意；而few, little則是「少到幾乎沒有」，是帶有「負向」的文意，我們來看幾個例子:
1. a few, few 用法例句:
I went to the United States to pursue a master’s degree several years ago. I wanted to get my master’s degree as soon as possible, so I spent most of my time studying and rarely took part in any leisure activities. Every time my roommate invited me to get to know new friends, I said that I had no time. Therefore, I had very few friends in the first few months after I arrived in the US. After I got used to the new environment and could keep up with other students, I started to take part in more social events, such as going hiking, taking free English classes, and hosting a reading club. I met a lot of nice people and made a few friends.
在上述的情境中， friend 這個字是可數名詞，量詞用 a few/ few來修飾，“I had very few friends.” ，這句話是帶有「負向」的文意，我的朋友少得可憐、少到幾乎沒有；反之， “I made a few friends.” 這句話是帶有「正向」的文意，我交了一些朋友。
2. a little, little 用法例句:
When I was young, I was taken care of by a babysitter and my grandparents. I could speak a little Taiwanese because all of them spoke Taiwanese only. However, since I went to elementary school and lived with my parents, I have been speaking Mandarin most of the time. I rarely speak Taiwanese now.
“I could speak a little Taiwanese.” 我會說一點台語 Taiwanese 台語是不可數名詞，所以與a little/little的量詞連用，而這句話是帶有「正向」的文意，英文寫I could speak a little Taiwanese.
When I was young, my family went back to Hualien, my father’s hometown, twice a year. We always got up very early and set off for Grandma’s house at around 4 AM. There was very little traffic, so we usually got to my grandma’s home within six or seven hours.
"There was very little traffic.” ，traffic 是不可數名詞，這句話是帶有「負向」的文意，表示路上幾乎每什麼車流。
練習題: 請填入 a few, a little, very few或 very little
1.Susan baked a cheesecake this afternoon. After she tasted the cake, she added ________sugar to it. After making the cake, Susan baked _________ cookies.
2. Susan: Mr. Ben, do you have _______minutes?
Mr. Ben: I was busy with this project. Could I talk to you later?
3. Peter was hungry, so he drank ________milk and ate _________ pancakes.
4. Gina isn’t good at managing her money. Over the past few weeks, she has been buying things she doesn’t really need. Now she has _______money. She doesn’t even have enough money to pay the rent or buy food.
5. At the information desk:
The receptionist: How can I help you?
The guest: Could you please give me _______information about restaurants and tourist attractions in this area?
6. Jerry got the stomach flu a few days ago. He threw up several times and could hardly eat anything. He ate almost no bread. In other words, he ate _______bread.
7. Anita always checks her essays carefully and revises them at least twice before handing them in to the teacher. She makes ________mistakes in her assignments.
8. I don’t like to wear rings, earrings or necklaces. I feel uncomfortable while wearing them. I have ______jewelry.
9. When Jason was a kid, his family was very poor. He had _____toys and _____clothes.
10. Lily can’t sleep very well at night due to noise. Could you give her __________advice?
2. a few
3. a little, a few
4. very little
5. a little
6. very little
7. very few
8. very little
9. very few, very few
10. a little
a few a little few little 所接名詞省略用法
如果對話情境中指稱的東西非常明確，有時候我們會把修飾的名詞省略，例如: 當上下文的句意很清楚時，a few, a little, few, little 後面修飾的名詞可省略. Do you need more milk for your coffee? Jerry說 “Just a little.” 這邊指Just a little milk. 只要一些牛奶，牛奶這個名詞被省略了； Would you like some cookies? Jerry說 “Just a few.” 這邊指Just a few cookies 只要一些餅乾，餅乾這個名詞被省略了；Do you know anything about 5G technology? Jerry 說 "Just a little” 這邊指I know a little about 5G technology. 關於5G科技我只懂一點點。
Mary: Jerry, do you need more milk for your coffee?
Jerry: Just a little, thanks.
Mary: Do you need sugar?
Jerry: Nope. I don’t take sugar in my coffee.
Mary: Would you like some cookies?
Jerry: Just a few. Thanks.
就幾塊，謝謝。 Mary: By the way, do you know anything about 5G technology? 對了，你對5G科技了解多少?
Jerry: Just a little.
當上下文的句意很清楚時，a few, a little, few, little 後面修飾的名詞可省略. Do you need more milk for your coffee? Jerry說 “Just a little.” 這邊指Just a little milk. 只要一些牛奶，牛奶這個名詞被省略了； Would you like some cookies? Jerry說 “Just a few.” 這邊指Just a few cookies 只要一些餅乾，餅乾這個名詞被省略了；Do you know anything about 5G technology? Jerry 說 "Just a little” 這邊指I know a little about 5G technology. 關於5G科技我只懂一點點。
a few a little few little倒底何時要加of的用法
a few, a little, few, little 後面是接代名詞(you, us)或後面的名詞是特定有所指的名詞時，用法就會要加入of ，特定有所指的名詞前面通常有the, this, that, these, those或所有格my, his, her, John’s 這樣的字詞時就需要搭配of 來使用，我們來看幾個例句:
(Mary and Jerry are having coffee in Jerry’s living room.) Mary和Jerry 正在Jerry的客廳喝咖啡
Mary: I bought a few fantasy novels last week.
Jerry: Oh, really! Could I borrow a few of them?
Mary: Sure. You can come to my home to get them later.
Jerry: I bought a package of Oolong tea a few days ago.
Mary: I like Oolong tea. Could I try a little of your tea?
Jerry: Of course. Let me get the tea set.
(After a while, Mary and Jerry are drinking tea.) 一會兒後，Mary和Jerry 正在喝茶。
Mary: You know what? My boss was mad at me this morning because I misplaced a document. He yelled at me for five minutes.
Jerry: I’m sorry to hear that. Well, very few of us can say that we never make any mistakes. Just be more careful the next time you file those documents.
Mary: Yeah, I’ll keep that in mind.
上述情境中，I bought a few fantasy novels last week. 是直接拿a few這個量詞修飾fantasy novels,但是 Could I borrow a few of them? 這句話這邊的them指的是your fantasy novels (Could I borrow a few of your fantasy novels?) 是指你買的奇幻小說中的幾本，故要用a few of …來說，不能講 a few them 或 a few your fantasy novels 這是錯誤的句子；Could I try a little of your tea? 我可以試喝你的茶其中的一些，要說 a little of your tea，不能說a little your tea. very few of us can say that we never make any mistakes. 這句話也是一樣，us是代名詞，與few連用時要講 few of us 不能說 few us.
2. I ate a few ____ those apples this morning.
3. Would you like a little ___ salt?
4. A few ____my books are written in French.
5. Could I try a little ___ your coffee?
6. A few ____the kids in this class like English.
7. We’ve got a few ____carrots and a little ___ milk in the refrigerator.
8. Very few ___ us can say that we never tell a white lie.
7. X X
a few a little few little 正式與非正式情境用法
a few a little few little 正式與非正式情境用法是讀者們比較少注意到的，這裡稍作說明：如果要表達少量的數量，Little 和 few通常用於正式情境中(亦即學術研究情境中)，在非正式情境中(一般日常對話) 通常偏好使用not much/many 或only/just… a few/a little來表達，且常使用 a bit (of) 來替代a little，除此之外，very little/very few 也常見於非正式情境中，我們來看一些例句:
a few a little few little非正式情境用法:
1.A teacher said, “I haven’t got much time, so I haven’t finished checking all of your papers. Sorry about that!”
一位老師說：「我沒有很多時間所以我沒有全部改完你們的作業，抱歉。」這邊使用I haven’t got much time. 比 I have had little time貼切。
2. Don’t be angry. Jenny is going to be only a few minutes late because of the heavy traffic. Let’s go to the movie theater first and buy tickets. 別生氣! Jenny 將會遲到幾分鐘因為車流較大，我們先去電影院買票吧!
3. A: What do you think of the chicken? B: Well, I think it’s pretty good, but if you sprinkle the chicken with a bit of pepper, it will taste better.
A: 你覺得雞肉味道如何? B: 嗯...我覺得挺好的，但如果你可以再撒上一些胡椒味道會更好。
*小提醒: a little 當數量詞時可以直接加不可數名詞，但是我們只能拿a bit of 接不可數名詞，但 a little 及 a bit 當副詞用時用法就是一樣的。 a little/a bit當數量詞用法: Sprinkle the chicken with a bit of pepper. = Sprinkle the chicken with a little pepper.
a little/a bit當副詞用法: She was a little nervous. =She was a bit nervous.
4. Susan is very shy, so she has very few friends. Susan很害羞所以她幾乎沒什麼朋友。
5. Jerry has very little patience with kids. He gets annoyed easily when kids are talking, running and yelling. Jerry 對小孩子沒什麼耐性，當小孩們在那邊講話、跑來跑去和喊叫時他很容易感到厭煩。
a few a little few little 正式情境用法:
Studies show that few people enjoy reading classic novels.
During the time Mary suffered from depression, many of her friends sent messages to show their concern, but few were willing to visit her in person.
There seems to be little prospect of success in recovering the economy of the country.
Do you have cats? Did you know that cats themselves drink little water? A lot of studies over the past few years have shown it’s important you give cats wet food rather than just pellet food.
你有養貓嗎? 你知道貓咪很少主動自己喝水嗎? 過去幾年來很多研究顯示出給予你的貓咪濕食而非乾飼料的重要性。
Little is known about her upbringing and work experience. Her life has remained mysterious to the public.
A little 可作為表達程度上的副詞，是「有一點、稍微地」的意思，可與a bit 互換使用，可修飾動詞、形容詞及副詞，也常用於修飾比較級狀態的形容詞，只是a little 比a bit 要讓人覺得再正式一點，a little 也常加上bit 變成 a little bit 當副詞來使用；little 當副詞意思是指程度上很少有變化，例句如下:
a little/little 修飾形容詞用法
Jerry's mother was a little worried when he didn’t get home on time.
This cup of tea is a little bit sweet.
I find this news a little bit hard to believe.
Could you please say that one more time and give me more examples? I am still a little confused.
After studying in the library for 2 hours, I got a bit tired.
A: Are you all right?
B: I’m feeling a little better now. Don’t worry.
Jerry didn’t get home on time. His mother decided to wait a little longer before giving him a call.
A: We have been walking for a long time. When will we get to our destination?
B: There’s a little further to go.
A: OK. I’m tired, but I guess I can walk a little further.
A: 好吧! 我累了，但我想我可以再走一下。
Jerry bought a new smartphone yesterday, but he found that this new phone was little better than his old one.
Mary is taking an online class now, but the reception is not good. Mary says to her teacher, “Could you please speak a little louder?”
This movie was a bit more adventurous than the last one we saw.
On the way to the airport, Jerry said to the taxi driver, “Could you please drive a bit slower? It’s a bit dangerous to drive at a speed of 120 mph on the highway."
They didn’t catch the 7.15 bus, so they got to the restaurant a little late.
Jerry was shy and didn’t like to hang out with strangers. He smiled just a little.
Jerry was very nervous when he gave his presentation this
morning. His hands shook a little as he spoke.
The secretary: Sorry, Miss Lin. Mr. Bob is still talking on the phone. Could you please wait a bit? He will be with you in a few minutes.
秘書說道: 林小姐很抱歉，Bob先生還在講電話，您可以稍等一下嗎? 他再幾分鐘就好了。
Mary was sleeping when the earthquake happened. She was scared and was wide awake all night. She slept very little that night.
His hometown is in the countryside, so it has changed little over the years.
He doesn’t follow the doctor’s advice and continues to smoke, drink, eat unhealthy food and stay up late. Therefore, his health has improved very little.
a few a little few little 當數量詞用法是最為多數讀者所熟知的: a few, few 與「可數名詞」連用， a little, little 則與「不可數名詞」連用，這邊也希望讀者注意a few a little few little 在隱含意思上的差別，a few, a little是指「一些」帶有「正向」的文意；而few, little則是「少到幾乎沒有」帶有「負向」的文意，此外本文也加深加廣地提到a few a little few little 在正式與非正式情境中的用法及a little/little當副詞的用法，希望讀者在閱讀完後能對a few a little few little這幾個字詞的用法能更為精準。
Azar, Betty Schrampfer.Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, 1999.
Hewings, Martin. Advanced Grammar in Use. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005
Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
劍橋字典當代英語文法 Little, a little, few, a few